The following search query was used on January 20, 2015 to search Medline; similar search terms used for the other databases (Embase, PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC):
1. (exp Refugees/ or “Emigrants and Immigrants”/) and (Learning/ or Learning problem$.af. or exp Learning Disorders/ or (cognition disorders/ or mild cognitive impairment/) or (exp “attention deficit and disruptive behavior disorders”/ or child behavior disorders/ or exp communication disorders/ or developmental disabilities/ or exp learning disorders/ or intellectual disability/) or Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/)
2. limit 1 to (english language and “all child (0 to 18 years)”), 1996–present.
Summary of 34 Included Studies on Educational Outcomes and Learning Problems in Refugee Children (1996–2015)
Place of Origin
Agbenyega& Klibthong (2013),9 Australia
Sub-Saharan Africa (countries not specified)
25 refugee-background families with a child attending preschool
Qualitative. Semistructured interviews with parents and teachers.
Preschool experiences of parents and educators.
Berthold (2000),10 USA
144 refugee-background Khmer secondary school students, born outside US (age 14–20 y, mean 16.35 y, 50% male)
Mixed methods. In-depth interviews, questionnaires with adolescents and parents.
Educational outcomes (grade point average), exposure to violence, PTSD, depression, school behavior problems, perceived social support.
Bitew et al (2008),11 Australia
16 refugee-background secondary school students (age 16–20 y)
Qualitative. Semistructured interviews with students.
Student experience of school, cultural differences, needs, interests.
Bitew et al (2010),12 Australia
16 refugee-background secondary school students (age 16–20 y), 10 teachers, 10 parents
Qualitative. Semistructured interviews with students, parents, and teachers.
Parental contact with school, academic assistance to child, education and awareness of Australian school system, cultural differences and expectations.
Brown et al (2006),13 Australia
8 refugee-background youth (age 15–20 y)
Qualitative. Individual interviews and focus groups with students.