- Israel T. Agaku, DMD, MPHa,
- Tushar Singh, MD, PhD, MSa,
- Italia Rolle, PhD, RDa,
- Ayo-Yusuf Olalekan, BDS, MPH, PhDb, and
- Brian A. King, PhD, MPHa
- aOffice on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; and
- bSefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Medunsa, Pretoria, South Africa
Dr Agaku conceptualized and designed the study, carried out the analyses, and drafted the initial manuscript; Drs Singh, Rolle, Ayo-Yusuf, and King critically reviewed and revised the manuscript; and all authors approved the final manuscript as submitted.