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Schematic figure to demonstrate study definitions: vocalization activity blocks.
Comparison of female versus male AWC per hour. *P < .0001 comparing female to male adults. Error bars represent SD.
Infant response to female and male adult–initiated language blocks. *P < .01 comparing infant response to female versus male adult.
Adult response to infant-initiated language blocks. *P < .0001 comparison among 3 categories.
A, Female adult response to infant-initiated language blocks by infant gender. B, Male adult response to infant-initiated language blocks by infant gender.
Characteristics of Study Infants (N = 33a)
↵a Thirty-three infants from 32 households (1 set of twins).
Comparison of Language Environment by Location
P < .05a: versus newborn nurseryb versus home 44 weeksc versus home 7 mo. % represents percentage of duration of entire recording.
Infant Vocalizations, Conversational Turns, and AWC per Hour by Infant Gender
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