Etiologies for Seizures Around the Time of Vaccination
Childhood vaccinations mildly increase the risk of febrile seizures in the general pediatric population, during specific risk periods. However, vaccinations are common precipitants for (first) seizures in the genetically determined, fever-sensitive Dravet syndrome (formerly severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy).
This study shows that in most children with epilepsy onset after vaccination, genetic or structural causes of epilepsy can be identified. This claim includes children with Dravet syndrome (∼35%) but also children with benign epilepsy or preexistent encephalopathy.
Variation in Care of the Febrile Young Infant <90 Days in US Pediatric Emergency Departments
Various low-risk criteria have been developed to guide management of the febrile young infant (<90 days), but they differ in age criteria, recommendations, and implementation. Therefore, variation in care is likely but has not been previously studied.
There is wide variation in testing, treatment, and overall resource utilization in management of the febrile young infant across all 3 age groups: ≤28, 29 to 56, and 57 to 89 days. There may be opportunities to improve care variation without compromising outcomes.
Dating Violence, Childhood Maltreatment, and BMI From Adolescence to Young Adulthood
Partner violence victimization is associated with mental and behavioral health effects linked to weight gain. Childhood maltreatment is directly linked to obesity and associated with neuroanatomic and psychosocial changes, which heighten vulnerability to subsequent stressors.
This study finds that dating violence victimization is associated with greater increases in BMI from adolescence to young adulthood among women. Women with previous exposure to childhood sexual abuse are especially vulnerable to dating violence–related increases in BMI.
Immunologic Effects of Hydroxyurea in Sickle Cell Anemia
Hydroxyurea is a treatment option for young patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Establishing the safety of hydroxyurea is of paramount importance. The effect of hydroxyurea on immune function and immunizations in SCD has not been studied previously.
Children with SCD receiving hydroxyurea have lower lymphocyte, CD4, and memory T-cell counts compared with those receiving placebo, but still in the range for healthy children. Despite slower response to measles vaccine, …