Nonmedical Interventions for Children With ASD: Recommended Guidelines and Further Research Needs
OBJECTIVE To use the findings of a systematic review of scientific evidence to develop consensus guidelines on nonmedical interventions that address cognitive function and core deficits in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and to recommend priorities for future research.
METHODS The guidelines were developed by a Technical Expert Panel (TEP) consisting of practitioners, researchers, and parents. A systematic overview of research findings was presented to the TEP; guideline statements were drafted, discussed, debated, edited, reassessed, and presented for formal voting.
RESULTS The strength of evidence of efficacy varied by intervention type from insufficient to moderate. There was some evidence that greater intensity of treatment (hours per week) and greater duration (in months) led to better outcomes. The TEP agreed that children with ASD should have access to at least 25 hours per week of comprehensive intervention to address social communication, language, play skills, and maladaptive behavior. They agreed that applied behavioral analysis, integrated behavioral/developmental programs, the Picture Exchange Communication System, and various social skills interventions have shown efficacy. Based on identified gaps, they recommend that future research focus on assessment and monitoring of outcomes, addressing the needs of pre/nonverbal children and adolescents, and identifying the most effective strategies, dose, and duration to improve specific core deficits.
CONCLUSIONS The creation of treatment guidelines and recommendations for future research represents an effort by leading experts to improve access to services for children with ASDs while acknowledging that the research evidence has many gaps.
- ASD —
- autism spectrum disorder
- EPC —
- Evidence-based Practice Center
- HRSA —
- Health Services Resources Administration
- PECS —
- Picture Exchange Communication System
- TEP —
- Technical Expert Panel
- UCLA —
- University of California, Los Angeles
- Accepted August 8, 2012.
- Copyright © 2012 by the American Academy of Pediatrics