Percentage of visits during which controlled medications were prescribed to adolescents (A) and young adults (B) from 1994 to 2007 in the NAMCS and the NHAMCS. For the data shown in A, P < .001 for trend for all; for the data shown in B, P < .001 for trend for all controlled medications, opioids, and sedative-hypnotics, and P = .09 for trend for stimulants.
Primary reason for visits during which an opioid was prescribed to adolescents and young adults from 2005 to 2007 in the NAMCS and the NHAMCS. Descriptions of visit codes, including outpatient and emergency department settings, are available in Supplemental Table 6. a Preoperative/postoperative (preop/postop) includes procedures; b includes sickle cell disease; c otolaryngology (ORL) includes tooth, mouth, and ear pain in addition to other symptoms referable to the ears, nose, and throat. Derm indicates dermatologic; GU, genitourinary; Resp, respiratory; GI, gastrointestinal; Heme/onc, hematologic/oncologic.