Impact of Prenatal Chlorpyrifos Exposure on Neurodevelopment in the First 3 Years of Life Among Inner-City Children
OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos on 3-year neurodevelopment and behavior in a sample of inner-city minority children.
METHODS. As part of an ongoing prospective cohort study in an inner-city minority population, neurotoxicant effects of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos were evaluated in 254 children through the first 3 years of life. This report examined cognitive and motor development at 12, 24, and 36 months (measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II) and child behavior at 36 months (measured with the Child Behavior Checklist) as a function of chlorpyrifos levels in umbilical cord plasma.
RESULTS. Highly exposed children (chlorpyrifos levels of >6.17 pg/g plasma) scored, on average, 6.5 points lower on the Bayley Psychomotor Development Index and 3.3 points lower on the Bayley Mental Development Index at 3 years of age compared with those with lower levels of exposure. Children exposed to higher, compared with lower, chlorpyrifos levels were also significantly more likely to experience Psychomotor Development Index and Mental Development Index delays, attention problems, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder problems, and pervasive developmental disorder problems at 3 years of age.
CONCLUSIONS. The adjusted mean 36-month Psychomotor Development Index and Mental Development Index scores of the highly and lower exposed groups differed by only 7.1 and 3.0 points, respectively, but the proportion of delayed children in the high-exposure group, compared with the low-exposure group, was 5 times greater for the Psychomotor Development Index and 2.4 times greater for the Mental Development Index, increasing the number of children possibly needing early intervention services.
- ADHD—attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
- BSID-II—Bayley Scales of Infant Development II
- CBCL—Child Behavior Checklist
- DSM-IV—Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition
- EPA—Environmental Protection Agency
- ETS—environmental tobacco smoke
- HOME—Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment
- MDI—Mental Development Index
- PDD—pervasive developmental disorder
- PDI—Psychomotor Development Index
- GLM—general linear modeling
- CI—confidence interval
- Accepted August 10, 2006.
- Copyright © 2006 by the American Academy of Pediatrics