The design of the experimental protocol for the 3 groups of participants. The women consumed either 300 mL of carrot juice or water daily for 4 days per week for 3 consecutive weeks during the last trimester of pregnancy and then again during the first 2 months of lactation. The mothers in 1 group (CW) drank carrot juice during pregnancy and water during lactation (n = 16); mothers in another (WC) drank water during pregnancy and carrot juice during lactation (n = 17); whereas those in the control group (WW) drank water during both exposure periods (n = 14). Approximately 4 weeks after the mothers began complementing their infants' diet with cereal but before the introduction of carrot-flavored foods or beverages, the infants, who were ∼6 months of age, were videotaped at the Monell Center as they fed, in counterbalanced order, cereal prepared with water (1 part cereal, 1 part water) during 1 test day and cereal prepared with carrot juice (1 part cereal, 1 part carrot juice) during another.
The infants' relative acceptance of the carrot-flavored cereal as indicated by display of negative facial expressions (left panel), mothers' ratings of their infants' enjoyment of the cereals (middle panel), and intake (right panel). Proportional responses were calculated by dividing each infant's response to the carrot-flavored cereal by his or her response to the carrot cereal plus plain cereal (carrot/[carrot + plain]). For example, scores above 0.50 indicate increased display of negative facial expressions, maternal ratings of infants' enjoyment, or increased intake when feeding the carrot-flavored cereal relative to the plain cereal. Mothers of infants in the CW group drank carrot juice during pregnancy and water during lactation; those in the WC group did the opposite; whereas those in the control group (WW) drank water during both exposure periods.