Mean (±) standard error of the mean percentage occurrence of grimacing and crying during the heel stick procedure for control newborns and newborns who were in skin-to-skin contact with their mothers before and during the procedure (n = 15/group for crying and grimacing, except n = 12 for grimacing in contact group).
Amount of crying (circles) and grimacing (squares) in real time, for contact (open symbols) and control (filled symbols) groups of newborns during the first 2 minutes of recovery. Data presentation is limited to the first 2 minutes of recovery because 7 of the control infants had to be removed from the study at that point for excessive crying.
Mean heart rate (bpm) at 10-second intervals for the entire study for both control and contact infants. At each data point,n = 15 infants. Representative standard errors of the mean are placed at 3 minutes 40 seconds.