Percent difference in the time each infant spent in active sleep during the 3.5-hour testing session, during which they ingested breast milk flavored with alcohol, compared with time spent in active sleep when they ingested breast milk alone (control condition). The 13 infants are rank-ordered by the amplitude of their responses. Mean percent difference, −33.8 ± 13.5%; paired t test (12df) = 3.30; P = .006).
Mean number of minutes the infants spent in active sleep during the 3.5-hour testing session, during which they consumed breast milk alone or breast milk with an added flavor. The solid circles indicate the data from the infants in the present study who were tested with the flavor of alcohol; the open circles indicate data collected from another group of breastfed infants of similar age (n = 14) who were tested with nonalcohol-based vanilla flavor (McCormick, Inc, Hunt Valley, MD); F(1,25df) = 5.77; P = .02.