TABLE 2

Risks of Neonatal Mortality According to Timing of Initiation of Breastfeeding in Singletons Who Initiated Breastfeeding and Survived to Day 2

Initiation of BreastfeedingNo. (%) of InfantsNo. of Deaths (% risk)aaOR 1 (95% CI)baOR 2 (95% CI)c
Within 1 h4763 (43)34 (0.7)11
From 1 h to end of day 13105 (28)36 (1.2)1.45 (0.90 to 2.35)1.43 (0.88 to 2.31)
Day 22138 (20)48 (2.3)2.70 (1.70 to 4.30)2.52 (1.58 to 4.02)d
Day 3797 (7.3)21 (2.6)3.01 (1.70 to 5.38)2.84 (1.59 to 5.06)d
After day 3144 (1.3)6 (4.2)4.42 (1.76 to 11.09)3.64 (1.43 to 9.30)d
Total10 947 (100)145 (1.3)
P LRT < .0001P LRT = .0001
P trend < .0001P trend < .0001
  • LRT indicates likelihood ratio test.

  • a % risk = no. of deaths/no. of infants in exposure category.

  • b Adjusted for gender, birth size, gestational age, presence of a congenital anomaly, health on the day of birth, health at the time of interview, mother's health at the time of delivery, age of mother, parity, educational level of mother, mother having cash income, household water supply, place of defecation, number of antenatal visits, place of birth, and birth attendant.

  • c Adjusted for all factors mentioned previously plus established breastfeeding pattern.

  • d The combined aOR for initiation of breastfeeding after 1 d was 2.88 (95% CI: 1.87 to 4.42).