TABLE 1

Characteristics of Study Population by Race/Ethnicity

Total
(N = 863)aRace/EthnicityP
Hispanic (N = 430)White (N = 153)Black (N = 236)Other (N = 44)
Child characteristics
Age, mo, mean (SD)2.1 (0.4)2.1 (0.4)2.1 (0.4)2.2 (0.4)2.1 (0.3).4
Gender, girl443 (51.3)214 (49.8)76 (49.7)129 (54.7)24 (54.5).6
Out of home child care, anyb79 (9.2)26 (6.1)18 (12.0)34 (14.4)1 (2.3)<.001
WIC status,c any729 (85.2)389 (90.9)96 (64.0)216 (92.3)28 (63.6)<.001
Insuranced<.001
 Medicaid735 (85.6)381 (88.8)110 (73.3)215 (91.1)29 (65.9)
 Private (any)97 (11.3)31 (7.2)35 (23.3)19 (7.6)13 (29.5)
 None27 (3.1)17 (4.0)5 (3.3)3 (1.3)2 (4.5)
Parent characteristics
Age,e years, mean (SD)27.6 (6.2)28.2 (5.9)26.7 (5.7)26.6 (6.3)30.0 (6.4)<.001
Relationship to child.3
 Mother825 (95.6)413 (96.0)148 (96.7)226 (95.8)38 (86.4)
 Father36 (4.2)16 (3.7)5 (3.3)9 (3.8)6 (13)
 Other2 (0.2)1 (0.2)0 (0.0)1 (0.4)0 (0.0)
Non-US bornb438 (51.0)356 (83.0)21 (14.0)31 (13.1)30 (68.2)<.001
Race/ethnicityf
 Hispanic430 (49.8)
 White, non-Hispanic153 (17.7)
 Black, non-Hispanic236 (27.3)
 Other, non-Hispanic44 (5.1)
Spanish languageg302 (35.1)302 (70.6)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)<.001
Educationh<.001
 Less than high school225 (26.2)176 (40.0)13 (8.7)35 (14.9)1 (2.3)
 HS graduate/General Educational Development280 (32.6)129 (30.1)44 (29.3)101 (43.0)6 (13.6)
 Some college200 (23.3)68 (15.9)51 (34.0)66 (28.1)15 (34.1)
 College or greater153 (17.8)56 (13.1)42 (28.0)33 (14.0)22 (50.0)
Household characteristics
Household incomei<.001
 <$10 000265 (32.0)149 (35.9)18 (12.4)86 (38.4)12 (27.9)
 $10 000–19 999228 (27.6)133 (32.0)32 (22.1)59 (26.3)4 (9.3)
 $20 000–39 999202 (24.4)89 (21.4)46 (31.7)57 (25.4)10 (23.3)
 $40 000 or more132 (16.0)44 (10.6)49 (33.8)22 (9.8)17 (39.5)
Children in householdb (<18 years)<.001
 1 child342 (39.8)149 (34.7)77 (51.3)89 (37.7)27 (61.4)
 2 or more children517 (60.2)280 (65.3)73 (48.7)147 (62.3)17 (38.6)
Site characteristics
Site name<.001
 University of Miami149 (17.3)75 (17.4)7 (4.6)55 (23.3)12 (27.3)
 University of North Carolina– Chapel Hill255 (29.5)97 (22.6)61 (39.9)85 (36.0)12 (27.3)
 Vanderbilt University230 (26.7)78 (18.1)70 (45.8)74 (31.4)8 (18.2)
 New York University229 (26.5)180 (41.9)15 (9.8)22 (9.3)12 (27.3)
  • Data presented as N (%) except as noted.

  • a After accounting for 2 subjects missing race/ethnicity.

  • b Missing for 7 subjects.

  • c Child or mother participating in WIC program; missing for 10 subjects.

  • d Child with any private insurance categorized as private; missing for 7 subjects.

  • e Missing for 6 subjects.

  • f Missing for 3 subjects.

  • g Parent answered Spanish questionnaires as opposed to English questionnaires.

  • h Missing for 8 subjects.

  • i Missing for 39 subjects.