TABLE 1

Summary of Studies Reviewed

SourceLongest Lifespan CoveredPrimary Datasets UsedBMI Levels ComparedStratificationAdjustment for Life Expectancy by BMIAccounted for Changes in BMI Over Life CourseUnadjusted Estimates Abstracted Directly From the Studies
Tucker et al 20063720 y to deathDirect medical costs as reported by Burton et al (1998)6434 vs 24GenderApplied survival probabilities published by Fontaine et al 200315Yes, using equation developed by Heo et al (2003)51In 2004 US dollars
Race or ethnicityWhite
 White Male: $8700
 Black Female: $12 000
Black
 Male: $7180
 Female: $12 240
Trasande 20104012 y to deathNationwide Inpatient Sample, 200565BMI >95th percentile for age and genderGenderAuthor accounted for obesity-related medical costs from age 12 to 55YesIn 2005 US dollars
MEPS 2002–200544>30 vs 18.5–25Male: $15 850
6–19 yFemale: $15 830
Thompson et al 19993634–44 to 99 yNHANES III32.5 vs 22.5GenderLE = Sum of annual probabilities of survival from any of the 3 given age rangesNoIn 1996 US dollars
Framingham Heart StudyMale: $9100
US Vital StatisticsFemale: $8600
Social Security Administration data
Wang et al 20103940 y to deathMEPS 2000>30 vs 18.5–25GenderLE calculated by Finkelstein et al16NoIn 2007 dollars
 >18 yMale: $10 310
Female: $9340
Finkelstein et al 20083820 y to deathMEPS 2001–2004>30 vs 21–25GenderLE calculated by Finkelstein et al16NoIn 2007 US dollarsa
 >18 yRace or ethnicityWhite
 White Male: $16 560
 Black Female: $24 780
Black
 Male: $13 120
 Female: $13 922
Ma and Frick 2011416 y to deathNHANES>30 vs 18.5–25GenderLE calculated by Finkelstein et al16NoIn 2006 US dollars
MEPS 2006Smoking statusWhite
 >18 yRace or ethnicity Male: $32 320 ($28 682)b
 6–17 y White Female: $40 870 ($37 260)b
 BlackBlack
 Hispanic Male: $25 960 ($22 590)b
 Female: $37 030 ($33 780)b
Hispanic
 Male: $23 180 ($19 110)b
 Female: $30770 ($27 590)b
  • All studies used an annual discount rate of 3%, and all studies used the Consumer Price Index, reported by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, to inflate prices. LE, life expectancy; MEPS, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey; NHANES, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

  • a Estimates obtained by calculating the weighted average of estimates for people with Class I and Class II/III obesity.

  • b Estimates for smokers in parentheses.