TABLE 4.

Effects of Patterns of Drug Use During Pregnancy on Adjusted Mean Birth Weight, Birth Length, and Head Circumference

Patterns of UseCocaine-Exposed (n = 241)Non-Cocaine-Exposed (n = 410)
No.Birth Weight, g*Birth Length, cm*Head Circumference, cm*No.Birth Weight, g*Birth Length, cm*Head Circumference, cm*
No cocaine use410 (100%)3108 ± 9648.2 ± 0.533.9 ± 0.3
Cocaine
    Consistently high107 (44%)3033 ± 8448.5 ± 0.533.5 ± 0.4
    Consistently moderate18 (7%)3064 ± 12249.4 ± 0.832.5 ± 0.5
    Consistently low22 (9%)2841 ± 10849.0 ± 0.733.1 ± 0.5
    Increasing15 (6%)2924 ± 11848.4 ± 0.733.4 ± 0.5
    Decreasing79 (33%)3038 ± 8448.5 ± 0.533.5 ± 0.4
Tobacco
    No use23 (9%)3168 ± 10549.9 ± 0.733.7 ± 0.5269 (66%)3244 ± 10148.7 ± 0.534.3 ± 0.3
    Consistently high50 (21%)2927 ± 8548.0 ± 0.533.0 ± 0.423 (6%)2980 ± 13348.0 ± 0.733.6 ± 0.4
    Consistently moderate35 (14%)3005 ± 9348.6 ± 0.632.8 ± 0.414 (3%)3069 ± 13447.8 ± 0.733.5 ± 0.4
    Consistently low82 (34%)3026 ± 8248.6 ± 0.533.4 ± 0.468 (16%)3156 ± 11048.3 ± 0.634.1 ± 0.3
    Increasing4 (2%)2753 ± 23249.3 ± 1.532.8 ± 1.00 (0%)
    Decreasing47 (19%)3001 ± 8847.9 ± 0.633.4 ± 0.436 (9%)3090 ± 11748.3 ± 0.633.9 ± 0.4
Alcohol
    No use59 (24%)2846 ± 9349.2 ± 0.633.1 ± 0.4177 (43%)3121 ± 10048.3 ± 0.533.9 ± 0.3
    Consistently high92 (38%)2874 ± 7948.8 ± 0.532.9 ± 0.426 (6%)2955 ± 11647.8 ± 0.633.6 ± 0.4
    Consistently moderate11 (4%)2985 ± 15348.2 ± 1.033.5 ± 0.78 (2%)3063 ± 17247.7 ± 0.933.5 ± 0.5
    Consistently low11 (4%)2985 ± 15047.8 ± 0.933.3 ± 0.772 (17%)3141 ± 10048.6 ± 0.534.0 ± 0.3
    Increasing4 (2%)3313 ± 24349.3 ± 1.533.3 ± 1.14 (1%)3165 ± 23348.5 ± 1.234.1 ± 0.7
    Decreasing64 (26%)2876 ± 8849.1 ± 0.632.9 ± 0.4123 (30%)3203 ± 9348.5 ± 0.534.2 ± 0.3
Marijuana
    No use114 (47%)2906 ± 8248.6 ± 0.532.9 ± 0.4332 (81%)3110 ± 7749.4 ± 0.433.6 ± 0.2
    Consistently high25 (10%)2946 ± 11148.5 ± 0.732.9 ± 0.511 (3%)2963 ± 13949.2 ± 0.733.4 ± 0.4
    Consistently moderate18 (7%)2973 ± 11648.7 ± 0.733.2 ± 0.54 (1%)3284 ± 22250.0 ± 1.234.7 ± 0.7
    Consistently low30 (12%)2980 ± 10048.8 ± 0.633.1 ± 0.419 (5%)3205 ± 12349.5 ± 0.734.0 ± 0.4
    Increasing10 (4%)3004 ± 14748.8 ± 0.933.4 ± 0.72 (<1%)2973 ± 30741.9 ± 1.634.1 ± 0.9
    Decreasing44 (18%)3072 ± 9849.0 ± 0.633.6 ± 0.442 (10%)3113 ± 9849.6 ± 0.533.5 ± 0.3
  • * Mean ± SE.