TABLE 2

Comparison of Clinical Characteristics, Disease Severity, and Outcomes Among Pediatric CDI Cases by Age Group, 2010–2011

VariableAge Group, n (%)P
Total (N = 944), n % Year 1 (n = 171)2–3 Years (n = 188)4–9 Years (n = 245)10–17 Years (n = 340)
Cases diagnosed by NAATa367 (39)67 (39)73 (39)99 (40)128 (38).93
Diarrhea within 1 day of stool collection680 (72)133 (78)140 (74)173 (71)234 (69).15
WBC count ≥15 000 cells per mm3 within 1 day of stool collection68 (7)8 (5)9 (5)18 (7)33 (10).09
Radiographic ileus within 5 days of stool collection3 (0.3)002 (1)1 (0.5).53
Pseudomembranous colitis documented on surgical pathology or endoscopy performed within 5 days of stool collection5 (0.5)1 (1)1 (1)03 (1).56
Recurrence100 (11)23 (13)20 (11)33 (13)24 (7).04
Severe diseaseb76 (8)9 (5)10 (5)21 (9)36 (11).08
Stool collected as outpatient830 (88)161 (94)167 (89)218 (89)284 (84).005
 Hospitalized within 7 days of outpatient stool collection154 (19)18 (11)30 (18)36 (17)70 (25).004
 Admitted to ICU6 (4)014 (11)1 (1).07
Underlying medical conditions, anyc395 (42)49 (29)73 (39)96 (39)177 (52)<.001
 Pulmonary disease64 (16)7 (14)12 (16)15 (16)30 (17).11
 Hematologic or solid malignancy52 (13)5 (10)9 (12)14 (15)24 (14).97
 Inflammatory bowel disease28 (7)01 (1)7 (7)20 (11).004
Medications
 Antibiotics, anyc316 (33)56 (33)68 (36)91 (37)101 (30).23
  Cephalosporins131 (41)20 (36)27 (40)39 (43)45 (45).72
 β-Lactams with increased activityd98 (31)21 (38)33 (49)20 (22)24 (24).0008
  Folic acid inhibitors53 (17)6 (11)14 (21)15 (16)18 (18).52
  Clindamycin27 (9)01 (1)7 (8)19 (19)<.0001
  Macrolide27 (9)6 (11)6 (9)7 (8)8 (8).92
  Fluoroquinolones22 (7)2 (4)3 (4)4 (4)13 (13).07
  Penicillinse15 (5)3 (5)09 (10)3 (3).02
 Proton pump inhibitors91 (10)11 (6)18 (10)24 (10)38 (11).40
 Histamine2-receptor blockers48 (5)8 (5)11 (6)12 (5)17 (5).96
 Systemic steroids81 (9)6 (4)17 (9)23 (9)35 (10).07
 Chemotherapy or other immune suppressing agents24 (3)2 (1)4 (2)7 (3)11 (3).53
Stool concurrently tested for coinfection535 (57)107 (63)111 (59)136 (56)181 (53).20
 Coinfectedf17 (3)06 (5)7 (5)4 (2).03
  • a Estimated by using data from annual laboratory practices surveys across laboratories serving the surveillance areas.

  • b Abnormal radiographic finding: WBC ≥15 000 cells per mm3, pseudomembranous colitis, or ICU admission.

  • c Not mutually exclusive

  • d Includes amoxicillin and clavulanate; ampicillin and sulbactam; piperacillin and tazobactam.

  • e Includes penicillin and amoxicillin.

  • f Identified copathogens include the following: Campylobacter jejuni (5), Salmonella spp (4), Shigella (2), shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (1), Cryptosporidium parvum (2), Entamoeba histolytica (1), Giardia lamblia (1), and rotavirus (1).