TABLE 2

Primary Measures: Parent Results

Observed DataaGrowth Model Estimatesb
PreinterventionPostinterventionSix-Month Follow-upCoefficient95% CINF Versus ControlCT Versus ControlNF Versus CTApproximate Effect Sizec
Conners 3-P–core ADHD symptoms
 Inattention
  Control76.72 (10.02)75.16 (10.47)74.58 (10.03)−1.26−2.56 to 0.05−0.12
  NF80.07 (10.77)71.43 (10.79)70.06 (13.17)−3.67−5.81 to −1.52**−0.34
  CT74.78 (9.50)70.21 (10.31)67.56 (9.05)−1.55−3.75 to 0.64−0.14
 DSM-IV-ADHD Inattention
  Control75.45 (11.20)73.90 (11.91)73.42 (11.45)−1.25−2.31 to −0.19−0.11
  NF79.20 (11.65)70.13 (11.76)68.45 (14.30)−3.45−5.36 to −1.55**−0.29
  CT73.48 (10.11)70.07 (10.51)66.13 (11.91)−1.88−3.78 to 0.02−0.16
 Executive Functioning
  Control69.26 (11.64)70.36 (12.56)70.52 (12.38)−0.10−1.14 to 0.94−0.0082
  NF72.23 (12.16)65.97 (13.16)65.00(14.65)−3.02−4.88 to −1.16**−0.25
  CT67.46 (12.04)66.00 (12.12)62.45 (11.28)−2.18−3.91 to −0.45*−0.18
 Hyperactivity/Impulsivity
  Control77.03 (13.77)75.42 (14.51)77.16 (13.60)0.67−0.53 to 1.870.05
  NF76.92 (13.54)72.73 (14.38)72.36 (16.34)−3.19−5.27 to −1.11**−0.23
  CT72.04 (13.69)73.07 (15.75)72.19 (12.92)−0.03−1.91 to 1.85−0.01
 DSM-IV-ADHD Hyperactive-Impulsive
  Control75.45 (13.61)74.84 (14.00)65.16 (14.41)1.11−0.12 to 2.350.08
  NF75.43 (13.76)71.33 (14.51)72.14 (15.94)−2.90−4.91 to −0.90****−0.21
  CT69.00 (13.71)71.43 (15.73)71.01 (13.25)0.34−1.47 to 2.15−0.02
BRIEF–summary indices
 Behavior Regulation Index
  Control60.84 (11.62)61.36 (10.35)60.39 (11.79)0.39−0.64 to 1.420.04
  NF62.43 (11.52)59.03 (10.05)59.82 (11.70)−2.43−4.22 to −0.65*−0.23
  CT59.29 (8.65)59.86 (10.28)59.07 (9.60)−0.50−1.97 to 0.97−0.05
 Metacognition Index
  Control65.45 (8.41)65.48 (9.45)67.13 (8.07)0.26−0.56 to 1.080.03
  NF66.93 (9.69)62.77 (9.09)60.80 (12.37)−2.92−4.50 to −1.35**−0.33
  CT62.14 (6.67)61.33 (8.22)60.21 (7.87)−0.91−2.20 to 0.39−0.10
 Global Executive Composite
  Control64.65 (9.02)64.81 (9.04)65.48 (8.36)0.23−0.65 to 1.100.0249
  NF66.30 (10.00)62.07 (8.86)61.02 (11.57)−2.75−4.37 to −1.13***−0.31
  CT61.75 (6.59)61.46 (8.30)60.29 (7.30)−0.65−1.96 to 0.65−0.07
  • CI, confidence interval; DSM-IV, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition; NF, neurofeedback.

  • a Data are presented as means (SD).

  • b The growth model coefficient estimates for NF and CT represent the difference in the linear slopes between the intervention conditions and the control condition over the 3 time points. A multivariate general linear hypothesis test was conducted to determine differences between the NF and CT slopes over the 3 time points.

  • c Approximate effect size estimate for linear growth coefficient.

  • * P < .05, ** P < .01.