TABLE 1

Participant Characteristics

NFCTControl
n343436
Age, mean (SD), y8.4 (1.1)8.9 (1.0)8.4 (1.1)
Male gender, n232225
Race, n
 White232429
 Black or African American313
 Asian784
Fourth gradea, n212822
Family income ≤$74 999, n131212
Suburban school district, n242527
IQ, mean (SD)
 IQ composite106.6 (13.9)108.4 (14.3)108.9 (15.4)
 Verbal IQ101.3 (16.7)103.9 (19.4)105.1 (16.3)
 Nonverbal IQ109.6 (12.5)110.2 (12.1)109.7 (17.7)
ADHD medication, n151420
Medication MPH equivalentb, mean (SD)28.9 (14.4)24.2 (10.2)25.1 (15.9)
Counseling (private), n978
School services: IEP/504 Plan, n272221
Conners 3-P Global Index, mean (SD)75.77 (13.46)70.89 (10.83)74.61 (12.08)
BRIEF Global Executive Composite, mean (SD)66.30 (10.00)61.75 (6.59)64.65 (9.02)
BOSS Engaged, mean (SD)72.16 (12.40)73.37 (13.30)78.20 (11.67)
BOSS Off-Task, mean (SD)30.17 (17.10)25.87 (15.05)21.14 (13.87)
  • IEP, Individualized Education Plan; MPH, methylphenidate; NF, neurofeedback.

  • a Significant difference between conditions.

  • b Only includes participants who were taking a stimulant medication.