TABLE 3.

Resource Utilization per Illness in a Specialized Preschool

IllnessIllness DistributionProbability of Physician Office Visit*Probability of Antibiotic PrescriptionProbability of Emergency Department VisitProbability of HospitalizationProbability of Day Care Absence as a Result of Illness**Average Number of Days Absent
Respiratory
 Common cold86%10%30%§0%0%7.5%2
 Pharyngitis3%50%50%0%0%50%2
 Bronchitis3%25%50%§0%0%50%3
 Croup2%80%15%§5%2%50%3
 Bronchiolitis3%90%50%§5%2%90%5
 Pneumonia3%80%100%§5%2%100%5
Gastrointestinal33%10%10%5%90%3
Otitis media100%100%0%0%100%2
Sinusitis100%100%0%0%100%2
  • From Krilov et al,24 the Medical Literature, and Clinical Expert Opinion.

  • * For each illness, we assumed that there would be 2 visits (initial visit and follow-up visit).

  • For children with pharyngitis, we assumed that 100% would have a rapid strep test and 20% would have a β-strep culture.

  • For children with pneumonia, we assumed that 80% of the children would receive a chest x-ray.

  • § Type, distribution, and dosage of antibiotics: amoxicillin (40%), Augmentin (15%), Zithromax (20%), Biaxin (12.5%), and cephalosporins (12.5%). The dosing regimens we costed were as follows: amoxicillin, 250 mg 3 times a day for 10 days; Augmentin, 500 mg twice a day for 10 days; Zithromax, 10 mg/kg day 1, 5 mg/kg days 2–5; Biaxin, 7.5 mg/kg twice a day; and cephalosporins, 7.5 mg/kg twice a day.

  • Distribution of antibiotics: amoxicillin (100%).

  • In addition to antibiotics, we assumed that 100% of patients received dexamethasone acetate (0.6 mg/kg day 1).

  • ** When a child was absent from day care, it was assumed that the child was cared for at home.