Table 1.

Prevalence and Distribution of Major Congenital Heart Defects by Birth Status and During Specified Time Periods, Metropolitan Atlanta, 1968–1997

Defect TypeLivebornStillbornTotal 1968–1997*Change During StudyTrend
(PValue)
No.%No.%No.%RateRate in
1995–1997
Rate
Increase§
Contribution
to Total
Change (%)
Heterotaxias781.421.5811.40.90.90.50.8
Corrected (L) transposition390.700.0390.70.40.70.40.6
Outflow tract defects
Tetralogy of Fallot3456.164.53536.13.84.72.23.71-165
D-transposition of the great arteries2264.043.02314.02.52.4−0.4
Double outlet right ventricle961.732.21011.71.12.22.03.41-165
Truncus arteriosus541.043.0601.00.60.60.20.3
Atrioventricular septal defect
(atrioventricular canal)
With Down syndrome1382.421.51402.41.52.41.73.01-165
Without Down syndrome1041.875.21111.91.21.00.61.1*
Total anomalous pulmonary
venous return
661.200.0661.10.70.70.10.2
Ebstein anomaly360.643.0400.70.40.60.50.8**
Right obstructive defects
Tricuspid atresia270.532.2310.50.30.30.0−0.1
Pulmonary atresia, intact septum480.821.5500.90.50.70.20.4
Pulmonic stenosis, atresia3576.300.03586.23.86.04.37.41-165
Peripheral pulmonary stenosis3335.900.03335.73.67.06.911.71-165
Left obstructive defects
Hypoplastic left heart1893.353.71963.42.12.10.50.8
Coarctation of the aorta2674.710.72684.62.93.50.71.2
Aortic arch atresia or hypoplasia571.010.7581.00.60.60.30.4
Aortic valve stenosis901.600.0901.51.00.80.10.1
Septal defects
Ventricular septal defect151426.83929.1155926.816.625.017.129.21-165
Atrial septal defect3957.03425.44317.44.610.08.815.01-165
Patent ductus arteriosus61710.900.061710.66.68.15.39.01-165
Other major heart defects58010.31712.759810.36.49.76.811.71-165
1-165
Total5656134581362.090.258.7100.01-165
  • * Includes cases of pregnancy terminations and of unknown birth status.

    .01 <P < .05;

  • P values, by Cochrane-Armitage test:

  • ** .001 < P < .01;

  • F1-165 P< .001.

  • Rate per 10 000 births.

  • § Difference in rate, 1995–1997 versus 1968–1972.