Table 1.

List of Variables With Definitions and Sample Statistics

DomainVariableDefinitionDistribution
DemographicsAgeEmbedded Image= 8.8 y (SD = 3.2)
Male gender= 1 if male, 0 if female64%
African-American= 1 if African-American ethnicity, 0 otherwise 7%
Hispanic= 1 if Hispanic ethnicity, 0 otherwise 8%
High school= 1 if at least 1 parent has high school education or higher, 0 otherwise54%
College= 1 if at least 1 parent has college education or higher, 0 otherwise17%
Unmarried= 1 if parents unmarried or not together, 0 otherwise41%
InsuranceCommercial= 1 if commercial insurance, −1 if Medicaid66% commercial,
26% Medicaid
Managed care= 1 if managed care, −1 if fee-for-service55% managed care,
37% fee-for-service
Commercial × managed care= commercial × managed care
Canadian= 1 if Canadian, 0 otherwise 7%
Uninsured= 1 if uninsured, 0 otherwise 5%
ProblemAdjustment reaction= 1 if clinician identified adjustment reaction, else 023%
Behavioral problems= 1 if clinician identified behavioral problems, else 038%
Emotional problems= 1 if clinician identified emotional problems, else 017%
Attention problems= 1 if clinician identified attentional or hyperactivity problems, else 047%
Physical manifestations= 1 if clinician identified physical manifestations of a psychosocial problem, else 023%
Developmental delays= 1 if clinician identified one or more developmental delays, else 012%
Psychosis= 1 if clinician identified psychosis, else 0 1%
Family problems= 1 if clinician identified family dysfunction, else 012%
Problem count
PSC
Number of psychosocial problems identified by Pediatric Symptom ChecklistEmbedded Image = 1.84, SD = 1.19
Embedded Image = 22.9, SD = 11.3
Family Apgar0–10 scale of family functioning19% with FAPGAR ≤5
ClinicianGender= 1 if male, else 057%
PCC ageEmbedded Image = 43.6 y, SD = 8.0
Family practitioner= 1 if family practitioner, 0 otherwise17%
MH fellowship= 1 if completed fellowship that included MH training, 0 otherwise 8%
Belief in MHPBS: PCCs' perception that they lacked the ability to treat MH problems (range: 8–24)Embedded Image = 12.3, SD = 3.4
Burden of MHPBS: clnicians' perception of burden associated with investigating psychosocial problems (range: 6–26)Embedded Image = 15.5, SD = 4.8
PracticeFamily practice= 1 if practice comprised of family practitioners, else 0 8%
Pediatric practice= 1 if practice comprised of pediatricians, else 038%
Solo practice= 1 if solo practice, else 010%
High managed care penetration= 1 if high managed care penetration among patients, else 016%
MH on site= 1 if there is a mental health specialist in the practice, else 037%
RelationshipPerceived agreement= 1 if PCC perceives parent's agreement with either diagnosis or treatment88%
My patient= 1 if provider viewed child as his/her patient, else 083%
VisitWell visit= 1 if well-child visit, else 029%
Psychosocial problem visit= 1 if visit was for a psychosocial problem, else 015%
Previously recognized problem= 1 if problem had been recognized at a previous visit, 0 if problem newly recognized66%
ContextNortheast= 1 if practice in Northeast, else 026%
Midwest= 1 if practice in Midwest, else 026%
Far West= 1 if practice in far West, else 020%
Autumn= 1 if visit took place in autumn, else 026%
Winter= 1 if visit took place in winter, else 029%
Spring= 1 if visit took place in spring, else 020%
MethodEarly enrollment= 1 if patient was in the first half of the series of patients from this practice, else 052%
  • SD indicates standard deviation; MH, mental health.