Table 3.

Six-Year Cumulative Incidence and Risk of Childhood Obesity According to Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors

Cumulative Incidence (%)Risk
95% CI
Adjusted Risk
95% CI
Gender
 Female7.11.0
 Male8.61.24 (.96–1.59)1.43 (1.07–1.94)*
Race
 White6.81.0
 Hispanic8.61.28 (.82–1.99)1.05 (.62–1.77)
 Black12.13-165 1.86 (1.39–2.49)3-165 1.19 (.80–1.76)
Marital status
 Married7.21.0
 Single9.61.36 (1.04–1.78)* .81 (.53–1.24)
Maternal education
 College or professional6.61.0
 High school only8.11.24 (.92–1.68).97 (.63–1.51)
 Less than high school9.4* 1.47 (1.04–2.08)* .96 (.67–1.37)
Occupation
 At least 1 parent professional/managerial5.71.0
 At least 1 parent nonprofessional8.4** 1.76 (1.15–2.67)** 1.11 (.78–1.58)
 Parent(s) not working12.43-165 2.36 (1.50–4.17)3-165 1.28 (.65–2.52)
Family income
 High (>85th percentile)3.91.0
 Middle (15th percentile < income ≤ 85th percentile)7.62.04 (1.21–3.44)** 1.84 (1.01–3.34)*
 Low (≤15th percentile)10.52.91 (1.66–5.08)3-165 2.84 (1.39–5.78)**
HOME score (cognitive)
 High (>85th percentile)3.71.0
 Middle (15th percentile < score ≤ 85th percentile)8.32.32 (1.39–3.88)** 2.67 (1.43–4.97)**
 Low (≤15th percentile)9.32.64 (1.48–4.70)3-165 2.28 (1.10–4.72)*
HOME score (emotional)
 High (>85th percentile)7.41.00
 Middle (15th percentile < score ≤ 85th percentile)7.71.05 (.72–1.54).90 (.59–1.37)
 Low (≤15th percentile)7.3.98 (.59–1.59)  .65 (.36–1.15)
  • * P < .05;

  • ** P < .01;

  • F3-165 P < .001.

  • Statistical significance assessed compared to reference group by χ2 test.

  • Risk adjusted for maternal BMI, initial weight-for-height Z score, gender, race, maternal education, marital status, family income, HOME cognitive score, and HOME emotional score.