Table 3B.

Characteristics of Diagnostic Tests for UTI—Listed by Test

AuthorQuality ScoreSubjective QualityTestSensitivity, %Specificity, %
Leukocyte esterase
 Goldsmith and Campos99 0.54FairLE76.081.0
 Marsik et al100 0.54GoodLE81.081.0
 Pfaller et al31 0.45GoodLE67.092.0
 Lohr et al36 0.36GoodDipstick, LE79.472.7
 Wiggelinkhuizen et al32 0.18FairLE Multistix-993.463.9
LE Combur-994.168.9
 Weinberg and Gan34 0.54GoodLE85.092.0
 Cannon et al103 0.36GoodBio-Dynamics 15-minute LE test84.077.0
Bio-Dynamics 1-minute LE test86.071.0
Nitrite
 Goldsmith and Campos99 0.54FairNitrite29.099.0
 Marsik et al100 0.54GoodNitrite69.095.0
 Tahirovic and Pasic41 0.54Good to fairNitrite21.399.6
 Kunin and DeGroot94 0.81FairNitrite82.0100.0
 Lowe95 0.72FairNitrite50.098.8
 Sinaniotis et al106 0.82GoodNitrite60.0100.0
 Boreland and Stoker102 0.36Good to fairVisually read nitrite55.297.9
Photometrically read nitrite53.398.6
 Lohr et al36 0.36GoodNitrite37.3100.0
 Goossens et al104 0.18Fair/goodNitrite15.090.0
 Wiggelinkhuizen et al32 0.18FairNitrite m-962.798.6
Nitrite c-962.798.9
 Weinberg and Gan34 0.54GoodDipstick, nitrite56.098.0
 Cannon et al103 0.36GoodAmes nitrite61.099.0
Bio-Dynamics nitrite72.099.0
Microscopy, bacteria
 Pylkkanen et al19 0.63FairBacterial count, numerous45.692.9
 Lohr et al36 0.36GoodBacteria45.671.0
 Hoberman et al12 0.81GoodAny bacteria86.011.0
Heavy bacteria16.070.0
 Hoberman et al33 0.63GoodAny bacteria93.096.0
 Weinberg and Gan34 0.54GoodGram stain, any organism97.087.0
Gram stain, >1/OIF90.097.0
 Houston39 0.27Fair>100 000/mm3 88.098.0
 Littlewood et al35 0.63Good>10 Bacteria/HPF, centrifugated deposit examination87.096.0
>10 Bacteria/HPF, uncentrifugated deposit examination87.0100.0
 Corman et al96 0.72GoodBacteriuria, >5/HPF96.089.0
Bacteriuria, >10/HPF88.093.0
Microscopy, leukocytes
 Pfaller et al0.45GoodChamber count58.0
 Pylkkanen et al19 0.33FairLeukocyte, >200/mL47.581.9
 Lohr et al36 0.36GoodMicroscopy, leukocyte80.484.3
 Hoberman et al12 0.81GoodAny WBC/HPF77.047.0
≥10 WBC/HPF32.064.0
≥5 WBC/HPF54.045.0
 Hoberman et al33 0.63Good≥10 WBC/mm3 91.096.0
 Weinberg and Gan34 0.54GoodWBC, >10/HPF78.087.0
WBC, >5/HPF84.077.0
 Houston39 0.27FairPyuria, >50/mm3 89.098.0
 Lam et al38 WBC, ≥10/1.6 mm3 100.093.0
 Corman et al96 0.72GoodWBC, >10/HPF56.092.0
WBC, >5/HPF64.091.0
Microscopy, leukocytes
 Hoberman et al23 0.66Good≥5 WBC88.062.0
 Hoberman et al105 GoodPyuria, >10 WBC/mm3 89.696.0
Protein
 Lowe95 0.72FairProtein54.967.0
 Boreland and Stoker102 0.36Good to fairVisually read protein40.376.8
Photometrically read protein53.383.9
AuthorQuality ScoreSubjective QualityTestSensitivity, %Specificity, %
Blood
 Lowe95 0.72FairBlood strip63.660.4
 Boreland and Stoker102 0.36Good to fairVisually read blood25.488.9
Photometrically read blood53.384.6
Combinations
 Lowe95 0.72FairNitrite and protein73.167.0
Nitrite or blood80.460.5
Nitrite or blood and protein85.549.0
Nitrite or blood or protein90.650.2
 Boreland and Stoker102 0.36Good to fairVisually read nitrite or blood and protein80.671.2
Photometrically read nitrite or blood and protein93.375.2
 Lohr et al36 0.36GoodLeukocytes and nitrite83.372.4
LE and nitrite or leukocytes88.271.7
Leukocytes or bacteria99.065.1
LE, nitrite, and/or leukocytes100.057.6
Any positive test100.060.1
 Wiggelinkhuizen et al32 0.18FairLeukocyte esterase and nitrite m-991.398.2
Leukocyte esterase and nitrite c-993.198.6
Leukocyte esterase or nitrite m-994.169.2
Leukocyte esterase or nitrite c-995.468.7
 Hoberman et al40 0.54GoodUrinalysis (standard)65.699.2
Enhanced urinalysis84.599.7
 Weinberg and Gan34 0.54GoodLE or nitrite90.091.0
 Cannon et al103 0.36GoodBio-Dynamics nitrite with 1-minute LE test90.071.0
Bio-Dynamics nitrite with 15-minute LE test90.077.0
 Goldsmith and Campos99 0.54FairMicroscopy80.083.0
 Vickers et al97 0.66PoorMicroscopy51.099.0
 Barbin et al50 0.45Good to fairSimplified microscopy of urine96.096.0
 Hoberman et al33 0.63Good≥WBC/mm3 and any bacteria89.099.0
 Houston39 0.27Fair≥50 WBC/HPF or ≥100 000 CFU by culture (gold standard is clinical diagnosis)100.092.0
Special
 Tahirovic and Pasic41 0.54Good to fairModified nitrite (urine incubated with nitrate)93.388.3
 Bixler-Forell et al42 0.63Good to fairLumac70.679.4
Bac-T screen64.266.9
AMS74.383.5