TABLE 2

Bacterial Counts (log10 CFU/mL) in Relation to Milk Shipment and Sample Characteristics and Advertised Health Behaviors and Quality Indicators, Milk Purchased Via the Internet (n = 101), Results From Simple Linear Regression Models

No. (%)Total Aerobic BacteriaTotal Gram-negativeColiformsStaphylococcus spStreptococcus sp
Time-in-transit, d0.71 (0.38 to 1.05)0.76 (0.41 to 1.11)0.83 (0.51 to 1.14)−0.09 (−0.29 to 0.12)0.33 (0.02 to 0.66)
Shipping container contentsa
 Dry ice63 (62)−0.53 (−1.50 to 0.43)−0.75 (−1.74 to 0.23)−0.79 (−1.71 to 0.12)0.01 (−0.55 to 0.57)0.11 (−0.79 to 1.01)
 Freezer ice or gel packs20 (20)−0.67 (−1.84 to 0.51)−0.84 (−2.08 to 0.41)−0.58 (−1.81 to 0.65)−0.28 (−0.88 to 0.33)−0.41 (−1.33 to 0.50)
 Styrofoam80 (79)0.09 (−0.81 to 0.99)0.05 (−0.89 to 0.98)−0.24 (−1.11 to 0.63)0.05 (−0.45 to 0.55)0.19 (−0.61 to 0.99)
Milk container damaged or leaking12 (12)−0.31 (−1.44 to 0.81)−0.79 (−1.96 to 0.37)−0.57 (−1.66 to 0.52)0.06 (−0.57 to 0.68)−0.13 (−1.13 to 0.87)
Temperature > 0°C65 (64)0.06 (−0.71 to 0.82)0.19 (−0.60 to 0.98)0.26 (−0.48 to 0.99)−0.51 (−0.92 to −0.10)−0.06 (−0.74 to 0.62)
Time from milk expression to analysis, mob−0.36 (−0.55 to −0.16)−0.29 (−0.49 to −0.08)−0.19 (−0.39 to −0.00)−0.22 (−0.33 to −0.10)−0.20 (−0.38 to −0.02)
Hygienic milk handling or storagec26 (26)0.29 (−0.54 to 1.12)0.21 (−0.65 to 1.08)0.21 (−0.60 to 1.02)−0.45 (−0.91 to 0.00)0.31 (−0.43 to 1.05)
Screened for infectious diseaseb,d22 (22)0.09 (−0.80 to 0.97)0.03 (−0.89 to 0.95)0.01 (−0.85 to 0.87)−0.36 (−0.85 to 0.12)−0.19 (−0.97 to 0.60)
Healthy diet or exercise habit(s)b,e62 (62)−0.12 (−0.87 to 0.64)−0.19 (−0.97 to 0.59)−0.19 (−0.92 to 0.54)0.09 (−0.33 to 0.51)0.01 (−0.66 to 0.68)
Limit or abstain from legal or illegal drugs or pharmaceuticalsf72 (71)−0.15 (−0.96 to 0.65)−0.41 (−1.25 to 0.42)−0.15 (−0.93 to 0.63)−0.07 (−0.52 to 0.38)0.15 (−0.57 to 0.86)
Makes claims about quality of milkg27 (27)−0.11 (−0.93 to 0.72)−0.60 (−1.45 to 0.25)−0.57 (−1.36 to 0.22)0.22 (−0.24 to 0.67)0.11 (−0.63 to 0.84)
  • Unless noted otherwise, data are presented as β (95% CI).

  • a One shipment contained both dry ice and freezer ice or gel packs.

  • b Seven samples did not indicate the date of milk expression.

  • c Pump sterilized or cleaned, milk frozen immediately, or containers cleaned or other hygiene or milk handling practice mentioned.

  • d Stated has been screened for infectious disease(s), offered to provide screening test results or medical records, milk bank donor certified, or offered to provide letter of recommendation from health care provider.

  • e Took vitamins or supplements; stated healthy, well-balanced, vegetarian or organic diet; limited or excluded particular allergic or sensitive foods; or regularly exercised.

  • f Consumed limited or no alcohol; nonsmoking; stated she is drug free or took no illicit drugs, or took no prescription or over the counter medications.

  • g Described milk as safest, great quality, organic, “tasty,” “sweet,” or similar.