TABLE 3

Regression Coefficients (95% CI) for Behavioral Difficulties Scores at Age 7, by Nonregular Bedtimes Throughout Early Childhood, Cumulative Effects

Mother ReportTeacher Report
nModel AModel BnModel AModel B
Always regular (ref)74395003
Not regular, any 1 age19611.41 (1.10 to 1.72)***0.53 (0.26 to 0.80)***12350.77 (0.36 to 1.18)***0.22 (−0.15 to 0.59)
Not regular, any 2 ages6262.70 (2.12 to 3.28)***1.04 (0.55 to 1.53)***3891.48 (0.79 to 2.18)***0.73 (0.07 to 1.38)*
Not regular, all 3 ages2043.53 (2.56 to 4.51)***2.10 (1.29 to 2.92)***1302.61 (1.29 to .94)***1.85 (0.61 to 3.08)
P<.001<.001<.001<.001
  • Model A adjusts for child’s age and gender. Model B additionally adjusts for mother’s age in years, birth order, family income, highest parental qualification, mother’s psychological distress, discipline strategies, mother often irritated with child, mother’s parenting competence, breastfed, skips breakfast, helped with reading, helped with math, helped with writing, TV hours per weekday, computer hours per weekday, parental employment, mother’s view of amount of time with child, father’s view of amount of time with child, child attends breakfast club, any other child care, child read to, TV time rules, overcrowding, child wets bed, child’s sleep disturbed by wheezing, TV in bedroom.

  • * P < .05.

  • *** P < .001.