TABLE 1

Descriptive Statistics for Sample From the FFCW

Sample (N = 1933), OLS
Age 3Age 5
% Mothers report spanking child ≥2×/wk12.65.5
% Mothers report spanking child <2×/wk44.446.6
% Mothers report not spanking child43.047.9
% Fathers report spanking child ≥2×/wk7.33.0
% Fathers report spanking child <2×/wk33.030.2
% Fathers report not spanking child59.766.8
% Girls47.6
Average age of child at year 9 assessment, mo (SD)111.4 (3.7)
% Born low birth wt9.2
% First born38.7
Average emotional temperament score at age 1 (SD)8.4 (3.1)
Average age of mother at birth, y (SD)25.0 (6.0)
% Married at baseline and age 520.6
% Cohabiting at baseline and married or cohabiting at age 517.2
% Not living together at baseline or age 532.6
% Living together at baseline, not at age 522.0
% Living separate at baseline, together at age 57.5
% White, non-Hispanic23.5
% Black, non-Hispanic51.9
% Hispanic21.4
% Other3.2
% Not completed high school34.4
% Completed high school or GED only27.2
% Attended some college or trade school26.8
% With BA or BS degree or more11.6
Household income/needs ratio at baseline (SD)2.4 (2.5)
% Mothers not US born10.7
% Mothers lived w/ both parents when they were age 1539.7
% Mothers reported working in past wk at age 963.5
Average number of other adults in household at age 9 (SD)2.0 (0.8)
Average number of other children in household at age 9 (SD)2.7 (1.3)
% Prenatal drug use, moderate or high alcohol, or smoking21.2
% Mothers reported IPV before child’s birth6.5
Mothers’ rating of fathers’ supportiveness during pregnancy (SD)10.5 (1.6)
% Late starting or no prenatal care17.3
Average mothers’ parental stress score at age 9 (SD)12.0 (2.7)
% Maternal depression or general anxiety disorder by age 941.4
Average impulsivity score for mothers at age 5 (SD)6.7 (1.3)
Average WAIS-R Similarities subtest score at age 3 for mother (SD)6.9 (2.6)
Average CBCL Externalizing Behavior score for child at age 3 (SD)14.8 (8.1)
Average Maternal Pro-Cognition Activities score at age 1 (SD)5.4 (1.4)
Average PPVT score for child at age 3 (SD)86.4 (16.4)
  • OLS, ordinary least squares.