Table 1.

Prone Sleep Prevalence of Infant1-a in the First 2 Months of Life by Live Birth Period and Selected Characteristics 1995 GWHS (Percent Distributions)1-b}

CharacteristicsPeriod I: Before InterventionPeriod II: After Intervention
95% CI95% CI
% Proneof % Prone(N)% Proneof % Prone(N)
Total6862–73(235)3531–40(401)
Age of mother, y
 <307063–77(151)3530–40(247)
 ≥306048–71(84)3628–44(154)
Race of mother
 Black8070–88(54)5344–62(86)
 White/other6255–69(181)2924–34(315)
Education of mother
 <High school8674–93(27)5140–62(41)
 ≥High school6255–68(208)3227–37(360)
Marital status of mother1-c
 Never married8066–89(35)5443–64(57)
 Ever married6558–71(198)3026–36(344)
Residence
 Rural (non-MSA)7868–87(67)4132–50(119)
 Urban (MSA)6356–70(168)3328–39(282)
Parity
 Previous liveborn6658–73(144)4438–50(234)
 First liveborn7061–79(91)2418–31(167)
Medicaid
 Yes7565–83(65)4941–57(116)
 No6355–70(170)2722–33(285)
WIC
 Yes7465–81(78)4033–48(129)
 No6254–69(157)3227–38(272)
When prenatal care received
 Early (in first trimester)6660–72(223)3329–38(388)
 Late (after first trimester/none)9065–98(12)7551–90(13)
Pregnancy planning status1-d
 Intended6860–75(147)3327–39(258)
 Not intended6757–75(87)3931–47(140)
Birth weight
 Low birth weight (<2500 g)7756–89(24)5234–70(28)
 Normal birth weight (≥2500 g)6760–72(211)3429–39(373)
Delivery type
 Cesarean6148–73(66)3021–40(99)
 Vaginal7063–76(169)3732–43(302)
Preterm1-e
 <37 Weeks6751–80(36)4230–56(46)
 ≥37 Weeks6861–74(197)3430–39(352)
Ever breastfed
 Yes6253–70(135)2822–34(239)
 No7365–81(100)4437–51(162)
Current smoking status
 Yes7159–81(56)2920–39(80)
 No6659–73(179)3732–42(321)
  • F1-a Limited to the most recent pregnancy resulting in a livebirth after January 1990.

  • F1-b Does not include “not the same position” response (n = 232).

  • F1-c Period I, two missing values.

  • F1-d Period I, one missing value; period II, 3 missing values.

  • F1-e Period II, three missing values.

    MSA indicates metropolitan statistical area.