TABLE 3

Effects of Parental Spanking on Child’s Standardized PPVT Score at Age 9

VariablesModel 1: Spanking (SE)Model 2: Child and Family Characteristics (SE)Model 3: Maternal Mental Health and Cognition (SE)Model 4: Earlier Child Behavior (SE)
Mother spanking ≥twice/wk at age 3a−1.20 (1.32)−1.31 (1.15)−0.95 (1.15)−0.37 (1.09)
Mother spanking <twice/wk at age 3a0.65 (0.86)0.49 (0.75)0.54 (0.75)0.30 (0.71)
Mother spanking ≥twice/wk at age 5a−1.40 (1.82)−1.65 (1.61)−1.09 (1.61)−0.92 (1.52)
Mother spanking <twice/wk at age 5a−1.11 (0.83)−0.00 (0.73)0.22 (0.73)0.22 (0.69)
Father spanking ≥twice/wk at age 3a0.92 (1.77)0.32 (1.56)0.20 (1.55)−0.56 (1.46)
Father spanking <twice/wk at age 3a0.36 (0.97)0.22 (0.85)0.24 (0.85)0.26 (0.80)
Father spanking ≥twice/wk at age 5a−5.06+ (2.78)−5.65* (2.44)−5.70* (2.42)−4.21+ (2.29)
Father spanking <twice/wk at age 5a−0.70 (1.02)−1.42 (0.90)−1.32 (0.89)−0.79 (0.84)
Control variables included in model
 Child & family characteristics
 Maternal mental health and cognition
 Earlier child externalizing and PPVT scores at age 3
Constant95.51*** (0.74)106.75*** (10.64)99.10*** (10.89)75.96*** (10.49)
Observations1532153215321532
R20.0310.280.300.38
  • Model 1: Includes only the parental spanking variables.

  • Model 2: Introduces controls for child and family characteristics: child gender; child’s age; child first born; child emotional temperament at age 1; maternal age at birth; marital status at baseline and at age 9; maternal race or ethnicity; maternal education; household income to needs ratio; mother foreign born; mother lived with both her parents at age 15; maternal employment in past 2 wk; number of adults in household at age 9; number of other children in household at age 9; maternal prenatal drugs, alcohol, or smoking; maternal prenatal IPV exposure; supportive birth father; and late starting or no prenatal care.

  • Model 3: Includes same controls as Model 2 and adds controls for low maternal stress at age 5, indication of maternal depression of general anxiety disorder over past 9 y, mother’s impulsivity at year 5, mother’s WAIS-R similarities score at year 3, and cognitively stimulating parenting at age 1.

  • Model 4: Includes same controls as Model 3 and adds a control for the child’s earlier externalizing CBCL score at age 3 and the child’s PPVT score at age 3.

  • a Omitted category is parent not spanking (all models also include controls for father absent at age 3 and father absent at age 5 interviews).

  • *** P < .001;

  • ** P < .01;

  • * P < .05;

  • + P < .07.