Table 1.

Eligibility and Exclusion Criteria for Study

Eligibility criteria
 Temperature ≥38.3°C in the ED
 Boys <1 year
 Girls <2 years
 No source or minor potential source of fever as determined by examining physician
 Example
  Otitis media(Visualization of redness, loss of landmarks, or abnormal movement of tympanic membrane)
  URI(Rhinnorhea, cough, upper airway sounds)
  Gastroenteritis(Abnormal frequency of monofluid or watery stools)
  Viral exanthem(Rash not identified as having one definite virus as an etiology)
Exclusions
 Definite Source of Fever
 Example
  Confirmed bacterial infection
   Meningitis by cerebrospinal fluid cell count
   Group A β-hemolytic streptococci–⊕ rapid test or    culture
   Pneumonia by chest radiograph
   Septic arthritis by joint aspirate
  By examination
   CellulitisPerforated otitis media with exudate
   AdenitisScarlet fever
   Osteomyelitis
  Specific viral infection by examination
   VaricellaHerpetic stomatitis
   Coxsackie diseaseBronchiolitis
   Measles
  Recognizable febrile disease
   Kawasaki's diseaseHenoch–Schonlein purpura
 Current antibiotic therapy
 Immunodeficiency (ANC < 500)
 Caretaker absent or unable to communicate