Table 2.

Maternal Nonnarcotic Drugs That Cause Neonatal Psychomotor Behavior Consistent With Withdrawal

DrugSignsDuration of Signs*Reference
AlcoholHyperactivity, crying, irritability, poor suck, tremors, seizures, onset of signs at birth, poor sleeping pattern, hyperphagia, diaphoresis18 mo24,27
BarbituratesIrritability, severe tremors, hyperacusis, excessive crying, vasomotor instability, diarrhea, restlessness, increased tone, hyperphagia, vomiting, disturbed sleep; onset first 24 hours of life or as late as 10 to 14 days of age4–6 mo with Rx22,28
CaffeineJitteriness, vomiting, bradycardia, tachypnea1–7 d102
ChlordiazepoxideIrritability, tremors; signs may start at 21 days9 mo; 1½ mo with Rx30
ClomipramineHypothermia, cyanosis, tremors; onset 12 hours of age4 d with Rx103
DiazepamHypotonia, poor suck, hypothermia, apnea, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, tremors, vomiting, hyperactivity, tachypnea (mother receiving multiple drug therapy)8 mo; 10–66 d with Rx29,104
EthchlorvynolLethargy, jitteriness, hyperphagia, irritability, poor suck, hypotonia (mother receiving multiple drug therapy)Possibly 10 d with Rx105
GlutethimideIncreased tone, tremors, opisthotonos, high-pitched cry, hyperactivity, irritability, colic6 mo106
HydroxyzineTremors, irritability, hyperactivity, jitteriness, shrill cry, myoclonic jerks, hypotonia, increased respiratory and heart rates, feeding problems, clonic movements (mother receiving multiple therapy)5 wk with Rx25
MeprobamateIrritability, tremors, poor sleep patterns, abdominal pain9 mo; 3 mo with Rx107
  • * Rx indicates the infant was treated with pharmacologic agents, and the natural course of the signs may have been shortened.