Table 1.

Major Drugs of Abusea}

OpioidsCNS StimulantsCNS DepressantsHallucinogens
Agonists
Morphine
Codeine
Methadone
Meperidine [Demerol]
Oxycodone [Percodan]
Propoxyphene [Darvon]
Hydromorphone [Dilaudid]
Fentanyl [Sublimaze]
Heroin
Antagonists
 Naloxone [Narcan]
 Naltrexone [Trexan]
Mixed Agonist-antagonists
 Pentazocine [Talwin]
 Nalbuphine [Nubain]
 Buprenorphine
  [Buprenex]
 Butorphanol [Stadol]
Amphetamines
 Dextroamphetamine
  [Desozyn]
 Methamphetamine [Desozyn]
 Amphetamine sulfate
Amphetamine congeners
 Benzphetamine [Didrex]
 Diethylpropion [Tenuate, Tepanil]
 Fenfluramine [Pondimin]
 Mazindol [Mazanor, Sanorex]
 Phendimetrazine [Adipost,
  Bontril, Prelu-2]
 Phenmetrazine [Preludin]
 Phentermine [Fastin, Obermine,
  Phentrol]
Cocaine
Methylphenidate (Ritalin)
Pemoline (Cylert)
Phenylpropanolamine
Phencyclidines
Alcohol
Barbiturates
Benzodiazepines
Other sedative–hypnotics
Methaqualone [Quaalude]
Ethchlorvynol [Placidyl]
Glutethimide [Doriden]
Methyprylon [Noludar]
Ethinamate [Valmid]
Chloral hydrate
Cannabinoids
 Marijuana
 Hashish
Indolealkylamines (LSD,
 psilocyn, psilocybin, DMT,
 DET)
Phenylethylamines
 (mescaline, peyote)
Phenylisopropylamines
 (MDA, MMDA, MDMA,
 MDEA)
Inhalants
Solvents and aerosols (glues,
 gasoline, paint thinner,
 cleaning solutions, nail
 polish remover, freon)
Nitrites
Nitrous oxide
  • a Adapted from Milhorn HT. Pharmacologic management of acute abstinence syndromes. Am Fam Physician. 1992;45:231

    LSD indicates lysergic acid diethylamide; DMT, dimethyltryptamine; DET, diethyltryptamine; MDA, methylenedioxyamphetamine; MMDA, 3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxyamphetamine; MDMA, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; and MDEA, 3,4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine.