TABLE 1

Demographics and Risk Factors for Past-Year NPOU

Past-Year NPOU, n = 185, 8.7%No Past-Year NPOU, n = 1950, 91.3%
Demographics
 Age, mean (SD)18.0 (2.0)17.5 (1.8)**
 Female, n (%)101 (54.6)1102 (56.5)
 White, n (%)134 (72.4)1396 (71.6)
 African American, n (%)21 (11.4)316 (16.2)
 Other, n (%)30 (16.2)238 (12.2)
 Public assistance (parent or self), n (%)78 (42.2)549 (28.2)***
 Failing grades, or dropped out of school, n (%)32 (17.4)98 (5.1)***
Risk factors, n (%)
 Dating violence63 (34.1)281 (14.4)***
 Drinking and driving or riding with a drinking driver120 (64.9)516 (26.5) ***
 Alcohol misuse108 (58.4)485 (24.9)***
 Marijuana use122 (66.0)584 (30.0)***
 Nonprescription cough or cold medicine misuse74 (40.0)249 (12.8)***
Visit characteristics and ED use, n (%)
 In ED for injury49 (26.6)699 (35.9)**
 Discharged from ED149 (80.5)1642 (84.2)
 Previous ED visit in past 12 mo65 (35.1)484 (24.82)**
 Received oral opioid in the ED20 (10.8)126 (6.5)*
 Received intravenous opioid in the ED51 (27.6)275 (14.1)***
 Given prescription for narcotic on discharge20 (10.8)126 (6.5)*
  • * P < .05; **P < .0.01; ***P < .001.