Table 1.

Factors Involved in Adolescent Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Drug Use

Paternal or twin alcoholism
Parental alcohol, tobacco, or other drug use
Family history of alcoholism
Family history of antisocial behavior
Child abuse and neglect
Parents with poor parenting skills
Poor relationships with parents
Drug use by sibling
Drug use by best friend
Perceived peer drug use
Failure in school
Low interest in school and achievement
Rebelliousness and alienation
Low self-esteem
Early antisocial behavior
Psychopathology, particularly depression
Negative character traits (eg, frequent lying, lack of empathy toward others, favoring immediate over delayed gratification, need to seek sensation, insensitivity to punishment)
Previous dependence on alcohol or other drugs
Disorganization in the community
Delinquent behavior
Low religiosity
Early experimentation with tobacco and alcohol
Early sexual activity