TABLE 1

Long-Term Neurodevelopmental Outcome

ReferenceStudy DesignParticipantsMain Outcomes
Chyi et al37Retrospective767 LP/13 671 termIncreased risk for below-average reading competence at all grade levels, increased need for individualized education programs at early school ages, and increased need of special education
Gray et al38Prospective260 LP /General populationIncreased rate of behavior problems at age 8 yr
Huddy et al39Retrospective83 LPIncreased rate of hyperactivity, behavioral, or emotional problems
Woythaler et al40Prospective1200 LP/6300 termIncreased risk for mental or physical developmental delay at age 24 mo
Morse et al41Retrospective7152 LP/152 661 termIncreased risk for developmental delay or school-related problems through age 5 yr
Lipkind et al42Retrospective13 207 LP/199 599 termIncreased need for special education and lower adjusted math and English scores at school age. Linear association between GA and test scores through 39 wk gestation
Quigley et al43Retrospective537 LP/6159 termIncreased risk for poorer educational achievement at age 5 yr
Talge et al44Retrospective168 LP/168 termIncreased risk for behavioral problems and lower IQ at age 6 yr
Odd et al46Prospective741 (32–36 wk)/13 102 termDespite an increased risk for special educational needs, there was little evidence of a reduction in IQ, memory, or attention measures at school age
Gurka et al47Prospective53 LP/1245 termNo difference regarding cognition, achievement, behavior, and socioemotional development throughout childhood