TABLE 2

Long-Term Respiratory Outcome

ReferenceStudy DesignParticipantsMain Outcomes
McEvoy et al59Prospective31 LP (33–36 wk)/31 termHealthy LP infants studied at term-corrected age have decreased compliance and increased resistance
Todisco et al60Case control, matched siblings34 LP (34–36 wk)/34 termPulmonary functions at age ∼11 yr revealed air trapping but no significant difference in bronchial responsiveness in healthy LP. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was more prevalent in the preterm children with impaired respiratory functions
Kotecha et al61Prospective81/49 infants: 33–34 wk, 248/132 infants: 35–36 wk, 6308/4284 infants: term, at 8–9 yr and 14–17 yr, respectivelyAt 8–9 yr of age, measures of forced expiratory spirometry are lower in children born at 33–34 wk GA compared with children born at term and are of similar magnitude to those in the extremely preterm infants. Infants born at 35–36 wk GA had the same PFTs as term infants. By 14–17 yr, measures of airway function in children born at 33–34 wk GA were similar to those in children born at term with the exception of forced expiratory flow rate between 25% and 75% of exhaled vital capacity
Hoo et al62Prospective24 infants 33.2±2.2 wkPreterm delivery is associated with altered airway development during early infancy (reduced maximal expiratory flow at functional residual capacity up to 12 mo) in healthy preterm infants
Mansell et al63Case control18 premature infants with RDS/26 premature infants without RDS/18 termAlthough no difference in PFT between infants with and without RDS, FEV1 and specific airway conductance were significantly reduced in the premature infants compared with children born at term when studied by spirometry at age 6–9 yr
Friedrich et al64Prospective26 infants (30–34 wk)/24 infants at termHealthy infants born prematurely demonstrate decreased forced expiratory flows and normal forced vital capacities in the first and second years of life
  • FEV1, forced expiratory volume at 1 s; PFT, pulmonary function tests.