TABLE 2

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 3 Years of Age According to Gestational Age

Gestational Age
22 Weeks23 Weeks24 Weeks25 WeeksTotal
Evaluated at 3 years, n23119180240562
CP, n/N (%)a5/23 (21.7)21/118b (17.8)14/173b (8.1)35/234b (15.0)75/548 (13.7)
 Profound CP4/23 (17.4)12/118b (10.2)9/173b (5.2)20/234b (8.5)45/548 (8.2)
Hearing impairment, n/N (%)a0/23 (0.0)4/119 (3.4)2/168b (1.2)3/234b (1.3)9/544 (1.7)
Visual impairment, n/N (%)a2/23 (8.7)12/118b (10.2)6/175b (3.4)5/231b (2.2)25/547 (4.6)
Cognitive delay, n/N (%)a12/21b (57.1)55/110b (50.0)49/152b (32.2)58/208b (27.9)174/491 (35.4)
 KSPD DQ of 50–695/11 (45.5)12/58 (20.7)27/104 (26.0)31/145 (21.4)75/318 (23.6)
 KSPD DQ of <500/11 (0.0)7/58 (12.1)11/104 (10.6)17/145 (11.7)35/318 (11.0)
 Judgment of delay by pediatrician7/10 (70.0)36/52 (69.2)11/48 (22.9)10/63 (15.9)64/173 (37.0)
NDI, n/N (%)a12/23 (52.2)65/114b (57.0)53/142b (37.3)78/212b (36.8)208/491 (42.4)
 Profound NDI7/23 (30.4)45/114b (39.5)23/142b (16.2)36/212b (17.0)111/491 (22.6)
Death or NDI, n/N (%)c60/75 (80.0)156/245 (63.7)129/332 (38.9)138/405 (34.1)483/1057 (45.7)
 Death or Profound NDI55/75 (73.3)136/245 (55.5)99/332 (29.8)96/405 (23.7)386/1057 (36.5)
Unimpaired/minimally impaired, n/N (%)c9/75 (12.0)49/245 (20.0)89/332 (26.8)134/405 (33.1)281/1057 (26.6)
  • Profound CP was defined as a GMFCS level of 4 or 5. Children who were defined as GMFCS level 1 were excluded and were included in the minimally impaired group. Hearing impairment was defined as requiring amplification. Visual impairment was defined as blind with no functional vision in 1 or both eyes. Cognitive delay was defined as a DQ score <70; if the child was unable to complete the KSPD assessment, the pediatrician estimated the child’s developmental level as delayed or not. In cases judged as delayed, the developmental level was assumed to be equivalent to a KSPD DQ of <50. NDI was defined as any of the following: CP with a GMFCS level of 2 to 5, hearing impairment, visual impairment, or DQ score <70. Profound NDI was defined as profound CP and/or a DQ score of <50. Children with an unknown CP level were classified into profound impairment.

  • a (%): percentage of infants with data of the assessment.

  • b There were cases without the assessment.

  • c (%): percentage of the study population.