TABLE 1

Demographic Characteristics of Infants and Mothers

Cases (n = 100)Comparisons (n = 50)P Valuea
Gender,b % male4644NS
Mode of delivery,b %
 SVD7270NS
 LUSCS2120
 Instrumental710
Gestation, wkc39.3 (38.2–40.1)39.7 (38.1–41.6)NS
5-min Apgarc9 (9–10)9 (9–10)NS
Birth weight,d g2892 (±505)3005 (±539)NS
SGA,b %1820NS
LBW,b %2018NS
OFC,d cm33.5 (±1.56)34.1 (±1.6).015
Microcephaly,b %88NS
Feeding at D/C,b %
 Bottle8790
 Breast78NS
 Mixed62
Maternal smoking,b %9560<.001
Maternal BMIc23 (21–26)23.5 (21–30)NS
Maternal DEPCATc7 (5–7)6 (4–7)NS
  • Microcephaly was defined as OFC < second centile. D/C, discharge; DEPCAT, Carstairs deprivation index score; LBW, low birth weight; LUSCS, lower uterine segment caesarean delivery; NS, not significant; OFC, occipitofrontal head circumference; SGA, small for gestational age; SVD, spontaneous vertex delivery.

  • a Categories were compared by using χ2 tests; birth weight and OFC by using 2-sample t-tests; and gestation, Apgar scores, maternal BMI, and DEPCAT by using Mann-Whitney tests.

  • b Categorical data (gender, delivery, SGA, LBW, microcephaly, feeding, and smoking) are given as percentage of each cohort.

  • c Gestation, Apgar scores, maternal BMI, and DEPCAT scores are medians (interquartile range).

  • d Birth weight and OFC are means (± SD).