TABLE 2

Summary of Effects of Prenatal Drug Exposure

NicotineAlcoholMarijuanaOpiatesCocaineMethamphetamine
Short-term effects/birth outcome
 Fetal growthEffect Strong effect No effect Effect Effect Effect
 AnomaliesNo consensus on effect Strong effect No effect No effect No effect No effect
 WithdrawalNo effect No effect No effect Strong effect No effect *
 NeurobehaviorEffect Effect Effect Effect Effect Effect
Long-term effects
 GrowthNo consensus on effectStrong effect No effect No effect No consensus on effect*
 BehaviorEffect Strong effect Effect Effect Effect *
 CognitionEffect Strong effect Effect No consensus on effectEffect *
 LanguageEffect Effect No effect *Effect *
 AchievementEffect Strong effect Effect *No consensus on effect*
  • * Limited or no data available.