TABLE 4

Results of Multiple Poisson Regression Analysis Examining Correlates of Frequent Physical Fighting, HBSC Study, 2002 to 2010

IndicatorRelative Risk of Engagement for Frequent Physical Fighting
Bivariate (Model 1) (n = 451 215) RR (95% CI)Age/Gender-Adjusted (Model 2) (n = 448 174) RR (95% CI)Adjusted (Model 3) (n = 360 439) RR (95% CI)
Contextual level variables
 Gini coefficient per 1 SD increase0.95 (0.93–0.98)0.96 (0.94–0.99)1.01 (0.98–1.05)
 GDP per capita (per 1 SD increase)0.87 (0.85–0.89)0.88 (0.86–0.90)0.96 (0.93–0.99)
 Homicide rate (per 1 SD increase)1.08 (1.05–1.12)1.07 (1.03–1.11)
Time level
 Time per 1-y increase, 2002–20100.98 (0.98–0.98)a
Individual level covariates
 Age group
  11 y1.41 (1.38–1.44)1.39 (1.36–1.43)3.12 (3.02–3.23)
  13 y1.25 (1.22–1.28)1.24 (1.21–1.27)2.18 (2.12–2.25)
  15 y1.001.001.00
 Gender
  Girls1.001.001.00
  Boys3.38 (3.31–3.45)3.36 (3.29–3.43)3.15 (3.07–3.23)
 FAS
  Low (0–3)0.96 (0.96–1.00)1.02 (0.98–1.06)
  Medium (4–5)0.96 (0.93–0.98)1.00 (0.98–1.02)
 High (6–8)1.001.00
 Risk behaviors (per unit, range 0–4)1.36 (1.35–1.37)1.69 (1.67–1.71)
 Victim of frequent bullying1.95 (1.90–1.99)1.67 (1.62–1.69)
  • CI, 95%, confidence interval.

  • a Not included, as found to be highly correlated with GDP per capita.