Indicator | Relative Risk of Engagement for Frequent Physical Fighting | ||
---|---|---|---|

Bivariate (Model 1) (n = 451 215) RR (95% CI) | Age/Gender-Adjusted (Model 2) (n = 448 174) RR (95% CI) | Adjusted (Model 3) (n = 360 439) RR (95% CI) | |

Contextual level variables | |||

Gini coefficient per 1 SD increase | 0.95 (0.93–0.98) | 0.96 (0.94–0.99) | 1.01 (0.98–1.05) |

GDP per capita (per 1 SD increase) | 0.87 (0.85–0.89) | 0.88 (0.86–0.90) | 0.96 (0.93–0.99) |

Homicide rate (per 1 SD increase) | 1.08 (1.05–1.12) | 1.07 (1.03–1.11) | |

Time level | |||

Time per 1-y increase, 2002–2010 | 0.98 (0.98–0.98) | —^{a} | |

Individual level covariates | |||

Age group | |||

11 y | 1.41 (1.38–1.44) | 1.39 (1.36–1.43) | 3.12 (3.02–3.23) |

13 y | 1.25 (1.22–1.28) | 1.24 (1.21–1.27) | 2.18 (2.12–2.25) |

15 y | 1.00 | 1.00 | 1.00 |

Gender | |||

Girls | 1.00 | 1.00 | 1.00 |

Boys | 3.38 (3.31–3.45) | 3.36 (3.29–3.43) | 3.15 (3.07–3.23) |

FAS | |||

Low (0–3) | 0.96 (0.96–1.00) | 1.02 (0.98–1.06) | |

Medium (4–5) | 0.96 (0.93–0.98) | 1.00 (0.98–1.02) | |

High (6–8) | 1.00 | 1.00 | |

Risk behaviors (per unit, range 0–4) | 1.36 (1.35–1.37) | 1.69 (1.67–1.71) | |

Victim of frequent bullying | 1.95 (1.90–1.99) | 1.67 (1.62–1.69) |

CI, 95%, confidence interval.

↵a Not included, as found to be highly correlated with GDP per capita.