TABLE 1

Characteristics of the Study Participants and Their Neighborhood (n = 195)

LAPNHAPNP
Child’s demographics
 Boy (%)59/95 (62.1)53/100 (53.0).20
 African-American race (%)a43/95 (45.3)55/100 (55.0).17
 Asian race (%)a16/95 (16.8)2/100 (2.0)<.001
 White race (%)a17/95 (17.9)7/100 (7.0).021
 Other/mixed race (%)a15/95 (15.8)34/100 (34.0).003
 Hispanic ethnicity (%)b24/95 (25.3)45/100 (45.0).004
 Mother’s age (mean years)38.435.3<.001
 Maternal asthma (%)21/95 (22.1)27/100 (27.0).43
 Material hardship reported (%)c26/94 (27.4)29/100 (29.0).80
 Mother has college degree (%)37/94 (39.4)31/98 (31.6).26
 Household income (median)d$50–60K$40–45K.077
 Smoker in the home (%)14/94 (14.9)26/99 (26.3).051
 Cockroach sightings not rare (%)19/95 (20.0)34/100 (34.0).028
 Mouse sightings not rare (%)6/95 (6.3)15/100 (15.0).051
Clinical features
 Frequent wheeze past 12 mo (%)18/95 (18.9)22/100 (22.0).60
 Controller medication past 12 mo (%)19/94 (20.2)31/100 (31.0).086
 Bronchodilator past 12 mo (%)52/94 (55.3)51/100 (51.0).55
 Seroatopy (%)e58/95 (61.1)61/100 (61.0).99
 Total IgE (IU/mL, GM [95% CI])111 [85.2–146]98.9 [70.2–139].59
 FeNO (ppb, GM [95% CI])f10.4 [8.9–12.1]10.5 [9.0–12.4].92
 FEV1/FVC (median [25% to 75%])g0.880.87.60
 Waist circumference (cm, mean [95% CI])h63.1 [61–65]61.9 [60–63].32
Neighborhood demographicsi
 African-Americans, median, %28.845.9.040
 Hispanic, median, %14.142.8<.001
 Households below federal poverty income, median, %17.337.2<.001
 Median household income (median $ in 1000)40.421.3<.001
 Adult population with high school degree, median, %18.210.1<.001
  • 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; GM, geometric mean.

  • a Race was not reported for 4 (4.2%) and 2 (2.0%) of the children in the LAPN and HAPN, respectively.

  • b Whether the child was of Hispanic ethnicity was not reported for 1 (1.1%) and 5 (5.0%) of the children in the LAPN and HAPN, respectively.

  • c Mother reported that in the past 6 mo she and her family could not afford needed food, rent, clothing or medical care, or that gas/electricity was suspended because of bill nonpayment.30

  • d There were 5 families in each group that did not report household income.

  • e Seroatopy defined as serum IgE > 0.35 kIU to at least 1 of the tested allergens.

  • f Missing data for FeNO on 17 (18%) and 15 (15%) children because of high ambient NO in the home at the time of testing.

  • g Missing data for FEV1/FVC on 18 (19%) and 11 (11%) of children.

  • h Missing data for waist circumference on 15 (16%) and 10 (10%).

  • i Neighborhood variables are defined for each of the study participant based on 2000 US Census data for the households in the 500 m surrounding the participant’s home.