TABLE 1

Demographic and Clinical Characteristics for Children With DP (Cases) and Without Deformational Plagiocephaly (Controls)

CharacteristicCases (n = 224)Controls (n = 231)
n%n%
Gender
 Male14564.713960.2
 Female7935.39239.8
Age in months at Time 3 (mean, SD)a36.5(1.2)36.0(1.1)
Race/ethnicity
 Caucasian15368.314462.3
 Asian/Pacific Islander125.4125.2
 Black/African American062.6
 Hispanic/Latino2611.62812.1
 Mixed race/Other3314.74117.7
Familial SES (mean, SD)47.1 (12.4)46.9 (11.6)
 I (high)8035.76026.0
 II8939.710043.3
 III3415.24619.9
 IV156.7208.7
 V (low)62.752.2
History of torticollisb
 Suspected94.031.3
 Confirmed8939.720.9
 None12656.322697.8
Orthotic helmet or band therapyb
 Yes7935.30
 No14564.7231100.0
Developmental interventionsb
 Physical or occupational therapy10446.4114.8
 Speech/language therapy3415.2146.1
 Birth-to-Three monitoring3113.8166.9
 Other3817.0187.8
 Any Developmental Interventionsc12254.53816.5
 ≥4 intervention sessions or ≥2 mo Birth-to-Three early intervention monitoring8236.6156.5
DP severity in infancy
 None20.916370.6
 Mild10145.16628.6
 Moderate-severe12154.020.9
  • a Range in age = 34.0 to 41.7 mo in cases, 33.3 to 40.9 mo in controls.

  • b Variables assessed at Time 3, including children with any history of the condition or treatment.

  • c Refers to children who received ≥1 of the listed interventions by Time 3.