TABLE 3

Viruses Detecteda

VirusTotal Subjects Positive (% of Total Tested)bP
Fever Without a SourceFever and Definite or Probable Bacterial InfectionAfebrile
Adenovirus20 (32)2 (18)6 (6)<.001
HHV-611 (17)0 (0)0 (0)<.001
Enterovirusc10 (16)0 (0)2 (2).003
Parechovirus4 (7)0 (0)0 (0).018
Bocavirus9 (14)0 (0)5 (5).114
Rhinovirus7 (10)2 (20)17 (16).427
Picornavirusd4 (6)1 (11)1 (1).080
KI virus4 (5)2 (13)2 (1).062
WU virus0 (0)0 (0)2 (2).581
Human metapneumovirus3 (4)1 (9)1 (1).103
Cytomegalovirus4 (6)1 (8)3 (3).398
Parainfluenza viruses3 (4)0 (0)0 (0).085
Epstein-Barr virus2 (3)3 (23)2 (2).008
Parvovirus B192 (3)0 (0)1 (1).660
Influenza A virus1 (1)0 (0)0 (0).433
BK virus0 (0)0 (0)1 (1)1.000
Coronaviruses0 (0)0 (0)2 (2)1.000
Patients with ≥1 virus detected (% of patients)57 (76%)6 (40%)41 (35%)<.001
Total viruses detected841245<.001
Children positive for adenovirus, HHV-6, enterovirus, or parechovirus (% of patients)e43 (57%)2 (13%)8 (7%)<.001
  • a Subjects were considered positive if the indicated virus was detected in either the blood or the nasopharyngeal sample.

  • b Because of limited sample volume, not all subjects were tested for each virus.

  • c Confirmed as enterovirus by nucleotide sequencing for viruses detected in nasopharyngeal samples but not for those detected in plasma.

  • d Detected by rhinovirus/enterovirus PCR performed on nasopharyngeal samples, but nucleotide sequence to allow discrimination between rhinovirus and enterovirus could not be performed for technical reasons.

  • e The numbers in parentheses are the percent positive for 1 of the 4 viruses listed, calculated by using as the denominator the number of children in the study group. If the percentages are calculated by using as the denominator the number of children who were positive for 1 or more of the 4 viruses plus the number of children who were tested and were negative for each of the 4 viruses, the percentages of children positive for 1 of the 4 viruses are: children with fever without a source, 69%; children with fever and definite or probable bacterial infection, 18%; and afebrile children, 8%. The difference between these groups is statistically significant (P < .001).