TABLE 4

Breastfeeding-associated Pain Scores After Surgical Procedures (RCTs)

StudyAge, dBaseline Measures, Mean ± SDFollow-up Measures
Study Design/Setting
Groups, n Enrollment/n Final
Quality
Visual Analog Scale
 Emond et al 20139Mean at 5-d follow-up (IQR)NR5 d, median (IQR)
  RCT/Hospital clinicG1: 11 (8–14)G1: 3 (1–4.3)
  G1: Frenotomy, 55/52G2: 11 (8–16)G2: 3 (2–6)
  G2: Usual care, 52/50G1 vs. G2: P = .13
  Quality: Good8 wk, median (IQR)
G1: 0 (0)
G2: 0 (0–1)
G1 vs. G2: P = .41
 Berry et al 20128Mean (range)G1: 4.1 ± NRMean immediately after procedure
  RCT/Hospital (not specified)G1: 33 (6–115)G2: 4.2 ± NRG1: 1.6
  G1: tongue-tie division, 30/27G2: 28 (5–111)G2: 2.9
  G2: sham procedure, 30/3Mean change ± SD:
  Quality: GoodG1: –2.5 ± 1.9
G2: –1.3 ± 1.5, P = .13
(95% CI: –0.3–2.4)
Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire
 Buryk et al 20117Mean ± SD at enrollmentG1: 16.8 ± 10.6Mean ± SD immediately after procedure
  RCT/Newborn nursery or clinic, otolaryngology clinicG1: 6.2 ± 6.9G2: 19.2 ± 9.9G1: 4.9 ± 1.46
  G1: Frenotomy, 30G2: 6.0 ± 7.0G2: 13.5 ± 1.5
  G2: Sham procedure, 28G1 vs G2: P < .001
  Quality: GoodEffect size: 0.38
  • G, group; NR, not reported.