TABLE 1

Maternal Characteristics According to Opioid Exposure in Tennessee Medicaid, 2009–2011

CharacteristicNo Opioid (n = 80 675)Any Opioid (n = 31 354)P
MedianIQRMedianIQR
Age, y2320–272421–27<.001
Education, y1212-131211–13<.001
Birth number11–211–2<.001
N%N%
Race<.001
 Black25 98632.2836226.7
 White53 07465.822 69972.4
 Other12981.61880.6
Maternal comorbidities
Pain
  Musculoskeletal disease44305.8743923.7<.001
  Headache or migraine16362.025938.3<.001
  Chronic pain400.01870.6<.001
  Acute pain720.11320.4<.001
 Infectious
  Hepatitis C3280.43581.1<.001
  Hepatitis B910.1390.1.61
  HIV1440.2430.10.13
 Psychiatric
  Depression21852.716725.3<.001
  Anxiety disorder12791.613614.3<.001
  Opioid dependency1540.22620.8<.001
Additional substances used
 Tobacco20 78525.813 09741.8<.001
 SSRI (last 30 d of pregnancy)15291.913354.3<.001
  • Percentages may not add to 100% because of rounding.

  • IQR, interquartile range.