TABLE 2

Dose-Response Benefits of Breastfeedinga

Condition% Lower RiskbBreastfeedingCommentsORc95% CI
Otitis media1323Any0.770.64–0.91
Otitis media1350≥3 or 6 moExclusive BF0.500.36–0.70
Recurrent otitis media1577Exclusive BF ≥6 modCompared with BF 4 to <6 mod1.951.06–3.59
Upper respiratory tract infection1763>6 moExclusive BF0.300.18–0.74
Lower respiratory tract infection1372≥4 moExclusive BF0.280.14–0.54
Lower respiratory tract infection1577Exclusive BF ≥6 modCompared with BF 4 to <6 mod4.271.27–14.35
Asthma1340≥3 moAtopic family history0.600.43–0.82
Asthma1326≥3 moNo atopic family history0.740.6–0.92
RSV bronchiolitis1674>4 mo0.260.074–0.9
NEC1977NICU stayPreterm infants
Exclusive HM0.230.51–0.94
Atopic dermatitis2727>3 moExclusive BF
negative family history0.840.59–1.19
Atopic dermatitis2742>3 moExclusive BF
positive family history0.580.41–0.92
Gastroenteritis13,1464Any0.360.32–0.40
Inflammatory bowel disease3231Any0.690.51–0.94
Obesity1324Any0.760.67–0.86
Celiac disease3152>2 moGluten exposure when BF0.480.40–0.89
Type 1 diabetes13,4230>3 moExclusive BF0.710.54–0.93
Type 2 diabetes13,4340Any0.610.44–0.85
Leukemia (ALL)13,4620>6 mo0.800.71–0.91
Leukemia (AML)13,4515>6 mo0.850.73–0.98
SIDS1336Any >1 mo0.640.57–0.81
  • ALL, acute lymphocytic leukemia; AML, acute myelogenous leukemia; BF, breastfeeding; HM, human milk; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus.

  • a Pooled data.

  • b % lower risk refers to lower risk while BF compared with feeding commercial infant formula or referent group specified.

  • c OR expressed as increase risk for commercial formula feeding.

  • d Referent group is exclusive BF ≥6 months.