Maternal Nonnarcotic Drugs That Cause Neonatal Psychomotor Behavior Consistent With Withdrawal

DrugSignsOnset of SignsDuration of SignsaRef. No.
AlcoholHyperactivity, crying, irritability, poor suck, tremors, seizures; onset of signs at birth, poor sleeping pattern, hyperphagia, diaphoresis 3–12 h18 mo14,15
BarbituratesIrritability, severe tremors, hyperacusis, excessive crying, vasomotor instability, diarrhea, restlessness, increased tone, hyperphagia, vomiting, disturbed sleep; onset first 24 h of life or as late as 10–14 d of age 1–14 d4-6 mo with prescription12,13
CaffeineJitteriness, vomiting, bradycardia, tachypnea At birth1-7 d161
ChlordiazepoxideIrritability, tremors; signs may start at 21 d Days–weeks9 mo; 11/2 mo with prescription11
ClomipramineHypothermia, cyanosis, tremors; onset 12 h of age4 d with prescription162
DiazepamHypotonia, poor suck, hypothermia, apnea, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, tremors, vomiting, hyperactivity, tachypnea (mother receiving multiple drug therapy) Hours–weeks8 mo; 10–66 d with prescription10
EthchlorvynolLethargy, jitteriness, hyperphagia, irritability, poor suck, hypotonia (mother receiving multiple drug therapy)Possibly 10 d with prescription163
GlutethimideIncreased tone, tremors, opisthotonos, high-pitched cry, hyperactivity, irritability, colic6 mo164
HydroxyzineTremors, irritability, hyperactivity, jitteriness, shrill cry, myoclonic jerks, hypotonia, increased respiratory and heart rates, feeding problems, clonic movements (mother receiving multiple drug therapy)5 wk with prescription58
MeprobamateIrritability, tremors, poor sleep patterns, abdominal pain9 mo; 3 mo with prescription165
SSRIsCrying, irritability, tremors, poor suck, feeding difficulty, hypertonia, tachypnea, sleep disturbance, hypoglycemia, seizuresHours–days1–4 wk31–33,35
  • a Prescription indicates the infant was treated with pharmacologic agents, and the natural course of the signs may have been shortened.