TABLE 4

Intellectual, Adaptive, Executive, and Social/Behavioral Outcomes Across Groups at 10 y Post-TBI

Mild, M (SD)Moderate, M (SD)Severe, M (SD)Control, M (SD)Significant Group Differences
Intelligence
 FSIQa98.86 (16.50)102.40 (16.39)91.85 (17.32)112.94 (11.71)F(3,56) = 4.63, P = .01, η2 = 0.21
 VIQa95.57 (13.48)103.30 (14.58)94.92 (16.11)112.50 (13.10)F(3,56) = 4.30, P = .01, η2 = 0.199
 PIQa102.86 (21.04)103.50 (16.68)89.77 (20.04)111.56 (21.21)F(3,56) = 4.15, P = .01, η2 = 0.19
 VC Indexa97.43 (12.88)102.50 (16.33)93.92 (15.15)112.80 (13.79)F(3,56) = 4.04, P = .012, η2 = 0.192
 PO indexa114.57 (20.82)104.65 (15.78)92.92 (18.31)110.87 (13.49)F(3,56) = 2.82, P = .05, η2 = 0.14
 FFD index88.29 (19.04)97.25 (19.45)97.54 (15.65)108.60 (17.17)
 PS Indexa99.29 (14.82)101.35 (15.88)88.62 (21.72)114.80 (17.36)F(3,56) = 5.15, P = .01, η2 = 0.23
Adaptive behavior
 Conceptual103.14 (14.98)96.47 (19.94)89.00 (14.50)103.81 (12.49)
 Practical98.57 (12.88)92.84 (21.95)85.82 (22.24)95.75 (13.44)
 Social104.71 (11.62)95.95 (16.60)89.45 (17.54)101.25 (12.09)
 Total composite102.86 (15.26)94.89 (20.00)86.00 (19.38)100.63 (13.32)
Executive function
 BR Index57.71 (17.95)53.58 (15.53)59.08 (11.74)48.21 (9.42)
 MC Index59.57 (12.21)54.32 (13.74)58.46 (10.58)49.71 (11.41)
 GEC59.29 (14.51)54.21 (15.10)59.54 (11.16)49.07 (10.35)
Social/behavioral
 Problem behavior104.57 (19.65)99.33 (13.05)105.00 (13.92)92.79 (8.75)
  • BR, behavioral regulation; FFD, freedom from distractibility; GEC, global executive composite; MC, metacognitive; PO, perceptual organization; PS, processing speed.

  • a Significant difference found between groups.