TABLE 1

Demographic and Medical Characteristics of the Sample

Total SampleNPI Group
SucroseFTCombination
n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)P, χ2
Sample71 (100)24 (33.8)24 (33.8)23 (32.4).986
Gender.983
Female32 (45.0)11 (45.8)11 (45.8)10 (43.5)
Male39 (55.0)13 (54.2)13 (54.2)13 (56.5)
Way of delivery.805
Normal birth6 (8.5)3 (12.5)1 (4.2)2.(8.7)
Planned cesarean delivery16 (22.5)4 (16.7)6 (25.0)6 (26.1)
Emergency cesarean delivery49 (69.0)17 (70.8)17 (70.8)15 (65.2)
Number of birth.462
Single50 (70.4)19 (79.2)14 (58.3)17 (73.9)
One of twins14 (19.7)3 (12.5)8 (33.3)3 (13.0)
One of triplet5 (7.0)2 (8.3)1 (4.2)2 (8.7)
One of quadruplet2 (2.8)0 (0)1 (4.2)1 (4.3)
Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)P, Kruskal-Wallis
GA at birth, wk and d29.24 (1.8)28.95 (1.7)29.20 (1.7)29.5 (2).389
Duration of HS, minHS 15.04 (5.2)4.38 (3.8)4.12 (3.6)6.7 (7.4).687
HS 24.75 (4.3)4.54 (4.5)4.67 (3.5)5.04 (5.0).851
HS 35.01 (4.8)4.46 (3.1)4.95 (4.7)5.65 (6.2).878
HS 44.73 (3.7)5 (3.9)5.33 (4.0)3.83 (3).305
HS 54.77 (3.6)4.65 (3.7)5.38 (4.1)4.26 (2.9).751
Birth weight, g1174.44 (337)1080 (286)1228 (397)1217 (309).308
Apgar scores1 min5.97 (2.1)5.65 (2.3)5.46 (2.3)6.83 (1.6).070
5 min7.58 (1.6)7.21 (1.4)7.29 (1.8)8.26 (1.2).030a
No. of painful procedures per day14.38 (7.4)15 (10)15 (9)13 (9).012a
No. of HSs per infants per day1.07 (1.2)1 (1)1 (1)1 (1).539
  • HS, heel stick.

  • a The significance level is .05.