TABLE 4

Percentage of Births with Selected Characteristics by Race and Hispanic Origin of Mother, United States, Selected Years: 1990, 2008, and 2009

All RacesNon-Hispanic
WhiteNon-Hispanic BlackHispanica
200920081990200920081990b200920081990b200920081990b
Mother
 <20 y of age10.010.412.87.37.59.616.417.123.213.814.116.8
 ≥40 y of age2.82.71.23.02.91.22.22.10.82.32.21.2
 Unmarried41.040.628.029.028.716.972.872.366.753.252.636.7
 Diabetes during pregnancy4.84.62.14.44.32.24.24.01.85.04.82.0
 Pregnancy-associated hypertension4.13.92.74.64.43.05.04.82.82.92.81.8
 Health care utilization
 Midwife-attended birthsc7.67.53.97.57.33.26.96.94.48.18.26.2
 Cesarean delivery rate32.932.322.732.832.423.435.434.522.131.631.021.2
 Wt gain of >40 lbsd20.820.815.923.523.416.520.520.214.816.116.314.1
Infant
 Birth weight
 LBWe8.168.187.07.197.225.613.6113.7113.36.946.966.1
VLBWe1.451.461.271.161.180.933.063.012.931.191.201.03
 Gestational age
 Preterm birthf12.1812.3310.610.9211.148.517.4717.5418.911.9712.1011.0
 Earlyf3.513.563.32.912.982.46.226.287.43.333.333.2
 Latef8.668.777.38.008.166.111.2411.2711.58.648.777.8
 Multiple births
 Live births in twin deliveries
 (per 1000 live births)33.232.622.637.036.622.938.036.826.722.522.318.0
 Live births in higher-order multiple deliveries (per 100 000 live births)153.5147.672.8201.4198.189.8105.691.346.283.580.139.4
  • Race and Hispanic origin are reported separately on birth certificates. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Race categories are consistent with the 1977 OMB standards. Three-three states and the District of Columbia in 2009 and 30 states in 2008 reported multiple-race data. Multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single-race categories of the 1977 OMB standards for comparability with other states. Data source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/NCHS, National Vital Statistics System, natality.

  • a Includes all persons of Hispanic origin of any race.

  • b Excludes data for New Hampshire and Oklahoma, which did not report Hispanic origin.

  • c Delivered by certified nurse midwives.

  • d Mother gained more than 40 pounds during pregnancy.

  • e VLBW is birth weight of <1500g (3 lb, 4 oz), and LBW is birth weight of <2500g (5 lb, 8 oz).

  • f Preterm indicates birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation, early preterm indicates birth before 34 completed weeks of gestation, and late preterm indicates birth between 34 and 36 completed weeks of gestation.