TABLE 1

Youth-Produced Sexual Image Cases Handled by Law Enforcement Agencies During 2008 and 2009: Characteristics of Cases by Case Typea

Characteristics of CasesCase Type
Adult Involved Aggravated
n = 278
% (n)Youth-Only Aggravated
n = 183
% (n)Experimental
n = 214
% (n)All Cases
n = 675
% (n)
Age of offender, adult-involved casesn/an/an/a
 ≤17b5 (17)
 18–2450 (119)
 ≥2538 (118)
 Unknown7 (24)
Youngest minor involved in case
 5 or younger<1 (2)<1 (2)1 (3)<1 (7)
 6–101 (7)4 (8)1 (4)2 (19)
 11 or 1213 (31)10 (21)8 (19)10 (71)
 13–1560 (165)62 (113)69 (140)64 (418)
 16 or 1724 (71)24 (39)21 (48)23 (158)
Case involved criminal behaviorc
 Blackmail or attempts to blackmail7 (22)9 (18)05 (40)
 Other coercion (eg, bullying)4 (13)6 (9)03 (22)
 Threats of violence or actual violence2 (8)5 (11)03 (19)
 Sexual abuse/exploitation by a minor05 (11)0n/a
 No criminal behaviord081 (114)100 (214)n/a
Case involved interpersonal conflict016 (38)05 (38)
Photograph was takenc
 By surprise<1 (2)8 (12)03 (14)
 Using deception2 (12)4 (6)02 (18)
 Over objection of subject4 (7)2 (5)02 (12)
 While subject was asleep/unconscious<1 (2)2 (4)01 (6)
 With hidden camera<1 (1)1 (2)01 (3)
 Other lack of consent01 (2)0<1 (2)
 No apparent lack of consent92 (253)82 (152)100 (214)91 (619)
Images were distributedc
 Without the knowledge of a subject11 (30)57 (100)022 (130)
 Over the objection of a subject5 (15)13 (24)06 (39)
 No apparent lack of consent86 (236)38 (73)97 (211)75 (520)
Images were forwarded by a recipient8 (19)54 (90)020 (109)
Images showed genitals or explicit sexe70 (208)62 (115)68 (150)67 (473)
There was an arrest62 (172)36 (71)18 (47)39 (290)
Suspect was chargedf
 With federal crimes8 (35)003 (35)
 With state crimes57 (146)18 (38)5 (17)28 (201)
 In juvenile court2 (5)29 (54)17 (41)15 (100)
Felony plea or conviction35 (103)5 (13)1 (7)14 (123)
As a result of this case, suspect will or will likely be a registered sex offender45 (128)5 (10)017 (138)
  • n/a, not applicable.

  • a Results are weighted to reflect selection probabilities. ns and percentages may not be proportionate because some cases have more influence than others. Some totals do not round to 100% because of rounding or missing data. Missing data are shown when they exceed 5%.

  • b Police considered some minors to be offenders because they aggressively pursued sexual contacts with adults.

  • c Categories are not mutually exclusive.

  • d By definition, all adult-involved aggravated cases and no experimental cases involved criminal behavior.

  • e We used a question based on the federal definition of child pornography to determine whether images were sexually explicit (ie, images showed genitals or sexual activity). Cases with no sexually explicit images involved nude or seminude images that were not sexually explicit.

  • f Some minors who were charged in state court also had juvenile court cases.