TABLE 1

List of Studies

Authors, Year of Study, CountrySample CharacteristicsFrequency MeasurementOutcome Measurement (Obesity, Healthy Eating, Disordered Eating)Control VariablesCalculated OR (95% CI)a
Anderson and Whitaker9 (2010), United StatesEarly Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort; n = 8550; 4-y-olds; 49% female; cross-sectional>5 evenings per week vs 0Obesity: (BMI: interviewer obtained; >95th percentile classified as obese)Child age, gender, racial/ethnic group, household income/poverty ratio, single-parent household, maternal education, maternal BMI, and maternal age, obtaining sleep >10.5 h/d, <2 h of TV per weekday0.77b
FitzPatrick et al14 (2007), United StatesSpecial Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children; n = 1336; mean age: 2.8 y; 50% female; cross-sectionalNever vs sometimes per weekHealthy eating: fruits and vegetables (whether parents served fruits ≥2 times per day and vegetables≥ 2 times per day)Race/ethnicity, parental education attainmentAll: 1.15c
Fulkerson et al20 (2006), United Statesn = 99 462; mean age: ∼14 y; 50% female; cross-sectional5–7 vs 0–1 d/wkDisordered eating: binge/purge, excessive weight lossGender, ethnicity, grade, maternal education, family structure, family support, family communication0.65c
Fulkerson et al1 (2008), United StatesProject Eat II; n = 2516; middle and high school students; 55% female; cross-sectional/longitudinal≥3 d/wk vs neverOverweight: ≥85th percentile (BMI: self-reported)Baseline overweight status, age, race, SES, physical activity, sedentary behavior, energy intakeCross-sectional: 0.68; longitudinal (5-y follow-up): 0.55
Fulkerson et al11 (2009), United Statesn = 145; mean age: 17.2 y; 48% female; cross-sectional5–7 d/wk vs neverOverweight: ≥85th percentile classified as overweight (BMI: collected by staff); disordered eating: unhealthy weight lossRace/ethnicity, age, SES, gender, random effect of schoolOverweight: 0.36; disordered eating: 0.38
Gable et al12 (2007), United StatesECLS-K; n = 8000; mean age: 5.7 y; 52% female; longitudinalFamily meals per week (composite variable)Overweight onset ≥95th percentile (BMI: collected)Maternal education and occupation, household income, gender, race, ethnicityLongitudinal (3-y follow-up): 0.93c
Gillman et al15 (2000), United StatesGrowing Up Today Study; n = 16 202; 9- to 14-y-olds; 54% female; cross-sectionalMost days vs never/some daysHealthy eating: eating fruits and vegetables (total of ≥5 per day), multivitamin use, soda consumptionAge and genderHealthy: 1.24c; unhealthy: 0.73c
Haapalahti et al18 (2003), Finlandn = 404; 10- to 11-y-olds; 49% female; cross-sectionalDaily/almost daily vs weekly/seldom/neverHealthy eating: eating bread, fat-containing milk, butter, sweets, fast food, sugar-containing juices; not eating vegetables; not eating fruits (composite index)Gender, father's occupation, family dinner, total CBCL scoreUnhealthy foods: 0.29b
Kusano-Tsunoh et al5 (2001), Japann = 12 321; primary and junior high school students; 50% female; cross-sectionalAlmost every day/3 or 4 times per week vs never/almost never/once or twice a weekHealthy eating: vegetables/fruits; unhealthy eating: snacks and cakes/soft drinks; almost everyday vs 3 or 4 times per week vs never or almost never and 1 or 2 per weekUnadjustedHealthy foods: 1.09; unhealthy foods: 0.97
Mamun et al2 (2005), AustraliaMater University Study of Pregnancy; n = 2335; 14-y-olds; 48% female; cross-sectionalAt least once per day vs a few times/once/less than once per weekOverweight: ≥85th percentile (BMI measured); healthy eating: fast food and soft drinksAge, gender, being overweight at 5 y of age, maternal parity, gross family income, maternal education, race, maternal attitude toward child's consumption of fatty foods and consumption of fast food, soft drinks, and red meat, amount of TV-watching and participation in sports and exerciseOverweight: 1.05; healthy eating: 0.96
Neumark-Sztainer et al21 (2008), United StatesProject Eat I and II; n = 2516; mean age of those starting out in middle school: 12.8 y, time 1, 17.2 y, time 2; starting out in high school: 15.8 y, time 1, and 20.4 y, time 2; 55% female; longitudinal≥5 vs ≤5 family meals per weekDisordered eating: extreme weight-control behaviors, unhealthy weight-control behavior, binge-eating, chronic dietingGender, grade level in school, SES, BMI, ethnicity/race, family connectedness, parental encouragement to diet, specific behaviors being examined at time 1Longitudinal (5-y follow-up): 0.98
Neumark-Sztainer et al19 (2004), United StatesProject EAT; n = 4746; mean age: 14.9 y; 50% female; cross-sectional≥5 vs no family meals per weekDisordered eating: extreme weight control, less extreme weight control, binge with loss of control, chronic dietingFamily-connectedness, weight-specific pressures within the home, grade level, ethnicity/race, SES and BMI0.67
Sen10 (2006), United StatesNational Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997; n = 5014; mean age: 13.33 y; cross-sectional/longitudinal5–7 vs 0 d/wkObesity: ≥95th percentile; at risk of overweight: BMI between 85th and 95th percentile (self-reported)Age, gender, race/ethnicity, height, attainment of puberty, SES, family connectedness, family structure, maternal education, computer in the householdCross-sectional: 0.81; longitudinal (5-y follow-up): 1.28
Taveras et al8 (2005), United StatesGrowing Up Today Study; n = 14 431; 9- to 14-y-olds; 54% female cross-sectional/longitudinalMost vs never/some daysObesity: >85th percentile, age- and gender-specific (self-report)Age, race, baseline, and follow-up menstrual status and Tanner stage, baseline height, annual change in height, BMI z score, physical activity, inactivity, genderCross-sectional: 0.85b; longitudinal (2-y follow-up): 0.99
Utter et al16 (2008), New ZealandPacific Obesity Prevention in Communities Study; n = 3119; 13- to 17-y-olds; mean age: 14.8 y; 52% female; cross-sectional5 d vs none, 3–4 d vs noneHealthy eating: soda, fast food, fried food, chocolate, fruits and vegetables (≥5/d), eat breakfastAge and genderHealthy foods: 1.55b; unhealthy foods: 0.96
Videon and Manning17 (2003), United StatesAdd Health; n = 18 177; mean age: 15.9 y; 49% female; cross-sectional4–5 d vs 3 or fewer; 6–7 d vs 3 or fewer d/wkHealthy eating: skip breakfast, not eat ≥2 vegetables, not eat ≥2 fruitsGender, race/ethnicity, age, parental education, body-weight perception0.66c
Woodruff and Hanning13 (2009), Canadan = 3025; grades 6, 7, and 8; 51% female; cross-sectional3–5 d vs 0–2 d per weekHealthy eating: eat breakfast, soda and fast food consumption; obesity: self-reportedGender, grade level, body-weight statusHealthy eating: 1.40; overweight: 1.04
  • EAT indicates Eating Among Teens; ECLS-K, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999; CBCL, Child Behavior Checklist.

  • a An OR of <1 indicates a protective factor for obesity, unhealthy eating, and eating disorders, and an OR of >1 indicates a protective factor for healthy eating.

  • b P < .01.

  • c P < .001.